RegulonDB RegulonDB 9.4: Operon Form
   

focA-pflB operon and associated TUs in Escherichia coli K-12 genome




Operon      
Name: focA-pflB
This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation.


Transcription unit          
Name: pflB
Gene(s): pflB   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: pflBp1
+1: 953579
Distance from start of the gene: 25
Sequence: catttacctgcgtgaaaacgaccaccattaatggttgtcgaagtacgcagtaaataaaaaAtccacttaagaaggtaggtg
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; during aerobiosis it exhibits low-level activity.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[RS-EPT-CBR]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [2] Salgado H, et al., 2012
[1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal Fis repressor pflBp1 953574 953588 -2.0 agtacgcagtAAATAAAAAATCCACttaagaaggt nd [AIBSCS], [GEA] [3]


Transcription unit       
Name: pflB
Gene(s): pflB   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: pflBp2
+1: 953641
Distance from start of the gene: 87
Sequence: attccggttacgatcggcaacattatcggtggtggtttgttggttgggttgacatactggGtcatttacctgcgtgaaaac
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; during aerobiosis it exhibits low-level activity.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[RS-EPT-CBR]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [2] Salgado H, et al., 2012
[1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989


Transcription unit       
Name: pflB
Gene(s): pflB   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: pflBp3
+1: 953741
Distance from start of the gene: 187
Sequence: aatccgcgacttcgcatccccggaattttggaccgcagtcggttctgcaccggaaaatttTtctcacctgaccgtgatgaa
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically, during aerobiosis it exhibits low-level activity.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989


Transcription unit       
Name: pflB
Gene(s): pflB   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: pflBp4
+1: 953851
Distance from start of the gene: 297
Sequence: cgcagcctgatggacaaagcgttcattatggtgctgccggtcgcgatgtttgttgccagcGgttttgagcacagtatcgca
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; during aerobiosis it exhibits low-level activity.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989


Transcription unit       
Name: pflB
Gene(s): pflB   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: pflBp5
+1: 953925
Distance from start of the gene: 371
Sequence: ttattgaggccgtctgtcttggtatcctggcaaacctgatggtatgtctggcagtatggaTgagttattctggccgcagcc
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; during aerobiosis it exhibits low-level activity.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989


Transcription unit          
Name: focA-pflB
Synonym(s): pfl
Gene(s): pflB, focA   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: focAp1
+1: 954493
Sigma Factor: Sigma70 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 27
Sequence: agccaggcgagatatgatctatatcaatttctcatctataatgctttgttagtatctcgtCgccgacttaataaagagaga
                             -35                  -10       +1                   
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; it is inactive during aerobiosis. The focAp1 promoter is the key promoter through which anaerobic FNR-dependent regulation is mediated.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [4] Kaiser M., et al., 1995
[5] Kaiser M., et al., 1997
[1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
[6] Sawers G., et al., 1992
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal ArcA-Phosphorylated1 activator focAp1 954492 954506 -6.0 ataatgctttGTTAGTATCTCGTCGccgacttaat nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]
remote ArcA-Phosphorylated activator focAp1 954600 954614 -114.0 tttatttttaTTTGGATAATCAAATatttactccg nd [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [7], [8], [10]
remote ArcA-Phosphorylated3 activator focAp1 954737 954751 -251.0 tataaggttaAATATCGGTAATTTGtatttaataa nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal CRP-cAMP1 activator focAp1 954523 954544 -40.5 aagccaggcgAGATATGATCTATATCAATTTCtcatctataa nd [AIBSCS], [BCE], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [11], [12]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal FNR1 activator focAp1 954527 954540 -40.5 caggcgagatATGATCTATATCAAtttctcatct nd [BCE], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [1], [6], [8], [10], [11], [13]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
remote IHF1 activator focAp1 954599 954611 -112.5 atttttatttGGATAATCAAATAtttactccgt nd [BCE], [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [10]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954505 954520 -20.0 tcaatttctcATCTATAATGCTTTGTtagtatctcg [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
proximal NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954522 954537 -37.0 gcgagatatgATCTATATCAATTTCTcatctataat [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954586 954601 -101.0 ggataatcaaATATTTACTCCGTATTtgcataaaaa [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954637 954652 -152.0 atgcggaaaaAATTCAACTCATTTGTtaatttttaa [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954711 954726 -226.0 tatttaataaATACGATCGATATTGTtactttattc [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954720 954735 -235.0 ggtaatttgtATTTAATAAATACGATcgatattgtt [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954738 954753 -253.0 attataaggtTAAATATCGGTAATTTgtatttaata [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954755 954770 -270.0 ttaataaaatAATTGTAATTATAAGGttaaatatcg [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954771 954786 -286.0 tttacatataTTTGCATTAATAAAATaattgtaatt [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954831 954846 -346.0 gcaatgtaggCTTAATGATTAGTCTGagttatatta [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 954833 954848 -348.0 acgcaatgtaGGCTTAATGATTAGTCtgagttatat [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
Note(s): 1ArcA regulation in this promoter shows a strong dependence on IHF . This ArcA-binding site straddles the transcription start site of the focAp1 promoter and it may be required for formation of a stable closed complex between Fnr and RNA polymerase at the focAp1 promoter.
3ArcA positive regulation shows a strong dependence on IHF, and this ArcA-binding site is located upstream of the IHF-binding site. ArcA has a higher affinity for this ArcA-binding site than for the two other ArcA-binding sites.1The CRP-binding site is the same as the FNR-binding site, with a center position at -41.5.1FNR is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. This protein mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon.1This IHF-binding site located between two putative FNR- binding sites is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. IHF also has a positive role in the anaerobic induction mediated by ArcA of the focA-pflB operon Sirko A,1993.6ArcA positive regulation shows a strong dependence on IHF, and this ArcA-binding site is located upstream of the IHF-binding site. ArcA has a higher affinity for this ArcA-binding site than for the two other ArcA-binding sites.
11This IHF-binding site located between two putative FNR- binding sites is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. IHF also has a positive role in the anaerobic induction mediated by ArcA of the focA-pflB operon Sirko A,1993.
13The CRP-binding site is the same as the FNR-binding site, with a center position at -41.5.
14FNR is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. This protein mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon.
17ArcA regulation in this promoter shows a strong dependence on IHF . This ArcA-binding site straddles the transcription start site of the focAp1 promoter and it may be required for formation of a stable closed complex between Fnr and RNA polymerase at the focAp1 promoter.


Transcription unit          
Name: focA-pflB
Synonym(s): pfl
Gene(s): pflB, focA   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: focAp2
+1: 954503
Sigma Factor: Sigma70 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 37
Sequence: cgggcctataagccaggcgagatatgatctatatcaatttctcatctataatgctttgttAgtatctcgtcgccgacttaa
                        -35                    -10          +1                   
Note(s): Transcription initiation from this promoter is weak and constitutive Kaiser M,1995.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[RS-EPT-CBR]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [13] Kaiser M., et al., 1995
[2] Salgado H, et al., 2012
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal ArcA-Phosphorylated1 activator focAp2 954492 954506 5.0 ataatgctttGTTAGTATCTCGTCGccgacttaat nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]
Note(s): 1ArcA mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon. Its positive regulation shows a strong dependence on IHF. This ArcA-binding site overlaps the transcription start site of the focAp2 promoter. The binding of ArcA to this site may be required for the formation of a stable closed complex between Fnr and RNA polymerase at the focAp3 promoter. Clearly, it will be necessary to examine the occupancy of this site by ArcA in the presence of RNA polymerase and FNR before any speculation can be made as to the physiological relevance of this binding site, although in vivo studies using an arcA mutant have clearly established that ArcA is essential for transcription from the focAp3 promoter.1ArcA mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon. Its positive regulation shows a strong dependence on IHF. This ArcA-binding site overlaps the transcription start site of the focAp2 promoter. The binding of ArcA to this site may be required for the formation of a stable closed complex between Fnr and RNA polymerase at the focAp3 promoter. Clearly, it will be necessary to examine the occupancy of this site by ArcA in the presence of RNA polymerase and FNR before any speculation can be made as to the physiological relevance of this binding site, although in vivo studies using an arcA mutant have clearly established that ArcA is essential for transcription from the focAp3 promoter.


Transcription unit          
Name: focA-pflB
Synonym(s): pfl
Gene(s): pflB, focA   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The focA gene and pflB gene are cotranscribed, but pflB is also transcribed alone.
Evidence: [LTED] Length of transcript experimentally determined
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
Promoter
Name: focAp3
+1: 954814
Sigma Factor: Sigma70 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 348
Sequence: taaaatcaaatagcctacgcaatgtaggcttaatgattagtctgagttatattacggggcGtttttttaatgccccgcttt
                      -35                       -10         +1                   
Note(s): This promoter is induced anaerobically; it is inactive during aerobiosis.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [4] Kaiser M., et al., 1995
[1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
[6] Sawers G., et al., 1992
Terminator(s)
Type: rho-independent
Sequence: tcgcgctaaaAAAGGCCCCACTTTCGTGGAGCCTTTATTGTACGCTTTTTACTGTACGATTTCAGTCAAAtctaattaca
Note(s): This terminator presents a double stem-loop structure.
Reference(s): [1] Sawers G., et al., 1989
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal FNR1 activator focAp3 954866 954879 -58.5 gcattctgggCAAAATAAAATCAAatagcctacg nd [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [6], [8], [9], [10], [11]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954505 954520 302.0 tcaatttctcATCTATAATGCTTTGTtagtatctcg [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954522 954537 285.0 gcgagatatgATCTATATCAATTTCTcatctataat [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954586 954601 221.0 ggataatcaaATATTTACTCCGTATTtgcataaaaa [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954637 954652 170.0 atgcggaaaaAATTCAACTCATTTGTtaatttttaa [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954711 954726 96.0 tatttaataaATACGATCGATATTGTtactttattc [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954720 954735 87.0 ggtaatttgtATTTAATAAATACGATcgatattgtt [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954738 954753 69.0 attataaggtTAAATATCGGTAATTTgtatttaata [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954755 954770 52.0 ttaataaaatAATTGTAATTATAAGGttaaatatcg [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
remote NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954771 954786 36.0 tttacatataTTTGCATTAATAAAATaattgtaatt [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
proximal NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954831 954846 -25.0 gcaatgtaggCTTAATGATTAGTCTGagttatatta [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
proximal NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 954833 954848 -27.0 acgcaatgtaGGCTTAATGATTAGTCtgagttatat [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4]
Note(s): 1FNR is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. This protein mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon.1FNR is absolutely necessary for pyruvate-mediated induction of the focA-pflB operon. This protein mediates anaerobic regulation of the focA-pflB operon.


Growth Condition    

 [a] Nitrate treatment



RNA cis-regulatory element    
Regulation, transcriptional elongation  
Attenuator type: Transcriptional
Strand: reverse
Evidence: [ICA] Inferred by computational analysis
Reference(s): [14] Merino E, et al., 2005
  Structure type Energy LeftPos RightPos Sequence (RNA-strand)
  terminator -11.8 953738 953782 cttcgcatccCCGGAATTTTGGACCGCAGTCGGTTCTGCACCGGAAAATTTTTCtcacctgacc
  anti-terminator -9.1 953763 953806 cccgatgggtATTGTAATCCGCGACTTCGCATCCCCGGAATTTTGGACCGCAGtcggttctgc
Notes: "The provided "Sequence" is that of the RNA strand, i.e. U's are shown instead of T's and regulators on the reverse strand will appear as the reverse complement of the sequence delimited by LeftPos-RigtPos"




Reference(s)    

 [1] Sawers G., Bock A., 1989, Novel transcriptional control of the pyruvate formate-lyase gene: upstream regulatory sequences and multiple promoters regulate anaerobic expression., J Bacteriol. 171(5):2485-98

 [2] Salgado H, Peralta-Gil M, Gama-Castro S, Santos-Zavaleta A, Mu¿¿iz-Rascado L, Garc¿¿a-Sotelo JS, Weiss V, Solano-Lira H, Mart¿¿nez-Flores I, Medina-Rivera A, Salgado-Osorio G, Alquicira-Hern¿¿ndez S, Alquicira-Hern¿¿ndez K, L¿¿pez-Fuentes A, Porr¿¿n-Sotelo L, Huerta AM, Bonavides-Mart¿¿nez C, Balderas-Mart¿¿nez YI, Pannier L, Olvera M, Labastida A, Jim¿¿nez-Jacinto V, Vega-Alvarado L, Del Moral-Ch¿¿vez V, Hern¿¿ndez-Alvarez A, Morett E, Collado-Vides J., 2012, RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more., Nucleic Acids Res.

 [3] Bradley MD., Beach MB., de Koning AP., Pratt TS., Osuna R., 2007, Effects of Fis on Escherichia coli gene expression during different growth stages., Microbiology. 153(Pt 9):2922-40

 [4] Kaiser M., Sawers G., 1995, Nitrate repression of the Escherichia coli pfl operon is mediated by the dual sensors NarQ and NarX and the dual regulators NarL and NarP., J Bacteriol. 177(13):3647-55

 [5] Kaiser M., Sawers G., 1997, Overlapping promoters modulate Fnr- and ArcA-dependent anaerobic transcriptional activation of the focApfl operon in Escherichia coli., Microbiology. 143 ( Pt 3):775-83

 [6] Sawers G., Suppmann B., 1992, Anaerobic induction of pyruvate formate-lyase gene expression is mediated by the ArcA and FNR proteins., J Bacteriol. 174(11):3474-8

 [7] Drapal N., Sawers G., 1995, Purification of ArcA and analysis of its specific interaction with the pfl promoter-regulatory region., Mol Microbiol. 16(3):597-607

 [8] Sawers G., 1993, Specific transcriptional requirements for positive regulation of the anaerobically inducible pfl operon by ArcA and FNR., Mol Microbiol. 10(4):737-47

 [9] Shalel-Levanon S., San KY., Bennett GN., 2005, Effect of ArcA and FNR on the expression of genes related to the oxygen regulation and the glycolysis pathway in Escherichia coli under microaerobic growth conditions., Biotechnol Bioeng. 92(2):147-59

 [10] Sirko A., Zehelein E., Freundlich M., Sawers G., 1993, Integration host factor is required for anaerobic pyruvate induction of pfl operon expression in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 175(18):5769-77

 [11] Sawers G., Kaiser M., Sirko A., Freundlich M., 1997, Transcriptional activation by FNR and CRP: reciprocity of binding-site recognition., Mol Microbiol. 23(4):835-45

 [12] Zheng D., Constantinidou C., Hobman JL., Minchin SD., 2004, Identification of the CRP regulon using in vitro and in vivo transcriptional profiling., Nucleic Acids Res. 32(19):5874-93

 [13] Kaiser M., Sawers G., 1995, Fnr activates transcription from the P6 promoter of the pfl operon in vitro., Mol Microbiol. 18(2):331-42

 [14] Merino E, Yanofsky C,, 2005, Transcription attenuation: a highly conserved regulatory strategy used by bacteria., Trends Genet 21(5):260-4


RegulonDB