RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.6.3: Operon Form
   

dps operon and associated TUs in Escherichia coli K-12 genome




Operon      
Name: dps
This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation.


Transcription unit          
Name: dps
Synonym(s): OP00242
Gene(s): dps   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): dps is induced by l-ascorbate through OxyR during early exponential phase |CITS:[17906139]|. Fis represses thedps promoter by trapping RNA polymerase contained at the promoter. The Fis-Eσ70 promoter complex, which can block transcription by Eσ38, acts as a corepressor of dps transcription |CITS:[18452510]|.
MntR represses dps expression during stationary phase |CITS:[21239586]|.
Fis also has a dual role in Dps control, repressing its transcription and promoting the Dps-mediated hypercondensation of the nucleoid
The transcription of the gene dps is enhanced under high oxygen saturation (300%) in the absence of the superoxide dismutase proteins SodA and SodB |CITS:[ 23497217]|.
Reference(s): [1] Almiron M., et al., 1992
[2] Altuvia S., et al., 1994
Promoter
Name: dpsp
+1: 848950
Sigma Factor: Sigma70, Sigma38
Distance from start of the gene: 39
Sequence: attagtgtgataggaacagccagaatagcggaacacatagccggtgctatacttaatctcGttaattactgggacataaca
                          -10              -35              +1                   
Note(s): Results suggest that the dps promoter is recognized by both the σ70 holoenzyme and σS holoenzyme, since OxyR acts on σ70, and in addition the starts of the OxyR-dependent and the σS-dependent transcripts are identical. This promoter displays an unusual form of regulation. If cells are treated with hydrogen peroxide during exponential growth, dps transcription is induced by OxyR, which activates σ70 RNA polymerase. Surprisingly, the same promoter is also activated by IHF and σS at the onset of the stationary phase. It is assumed that both OxyR and IHF bind upstream of the dps promoter and that the mechanisms of activation act independently of each other. The promoter has a a sequence that conforms to the consensus -10, but no obvious -35 sequence is present. Possibly, the dps promoter is not ideally bound by either holoenzyme, leading to the need for IHF to enhance the binding of σS RNA polymerase and of OxyR to enhance the binding of σ70 RNA polymerase.
The dpS gene is positively regulated by RpoS in stationary phase, and it is mainly controlled at the level of transcription Phadtare S,2001. The effect by RpoS is likely indirect and might be mediated by an intermediate regulator that itself is directly regulated by RpoS. Phadtare et al. (2001) found that CspC and CspE upregulate the expression of dps by regulating the expression of RpoS itself Phadtare S,2001.
Fis and H-NS control σ factor selection at the dps promoter Grainger DC,2008
Evidence: [RS-EPT-CBR]
[TIM] ; Method: Primer Extension
[TIM]
Reference(s): [2] Altuvia S., et al., 1994
[3] Lacour S., et al., 2004
[4] Salgado H, et al., 2012
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal Fis repressor dpsp 848953 848967 -10.0 cacatagccgGTGCTATACTTAATCtcgttaatta nd [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [5], [6]
proximal Fis2 repressor dpsp 848969 848983 -26.0 agccagaataGCGGAACACATAGCCggtgctatac nd [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [5], [6]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal H-NS1 repressor dpsp 848943 848953 3.5 tatacttaatCTCGTTAATTActgggacata nd [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [5]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
remote IHF1 activator dpsp 849042 849054 -98.5 tatatctaacTCATTGAATCTTTattagttttg nd [HIBSCS] [2]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal MntR-Mn2+ repressor dpsp 848957 848978 -17.5 gaatagcggaACACATAGCCGGTGCTATACTTaatctcgtta nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal OxyR activator dpsp 848959 848975 -17.0 tagcggaacaCATAGCCGGTGCTATACttaatctcgt nd , [IHBCE], [7]
proximal OxyR2 activator dpsp 848986 849002 -44.0 ctattagtgtGATAGGAACAGCCAGAAtagcggaaca nd [HIBSCS] [2]
proximal OxyR activator dpsp 849008 849024 -66.0 ttgtttttcaCGCTTGTTACCACTATTagtgtgatag nd [HIBSCS] [2]
Note(s): 2The FisI (-26) binding site has a relatively low affinity for its cognate factor, which ensures that it is only occupied during rapid growth Grainger DC,20081H-NS blocks dps transcription by displacing RNA polymerase Grainger DC,20081Purified OxyR and IHF proteins have also been shown to bind upstream of the dps promoter. IHF is required for the σS-dependent promoter. dps is induced in stationary phase. OxyR and IHF proteins may occupy the dps promoter simultaneously Altuvia S,1994.2Purified OxyR and IHF proteins have also been shown to bind upstream from the dps promoter. OxyR and σS act independently to regulate the level of the Dps protein in the log and the stationary phases. Regulation of dps by σS and OxyR is independent in vivo, and OxyR probably does not activate σS holoenzyme. OxyR and IHF proteins may occupy the dps promoter simultaneously Altuvia S,1994.
1Purified OxyR and IHF proteins have also been shown to bind upstream of the dps promoter. IHF is required for the σS-dependent promoter. dps is induced in stationary phase. OxyR and IHF proteins may occupy the dps promoter simultaneously Altuvia S,1994.
3Purified OxyR and IHF proteins have also been shown to bind upstream from the dps promoter. OxyR and σS act independently to regulate the level of the Dps protein in the log and the stationary phases. Regulation of dps by σS and OxyR is independent in vivo, and OxyR probably does not activate σS holoenzyme. OxyR and IHF proteins may occupy the dps promoter simultaneously Altuvia S,1994.
4The FisI (-26) binding site has a relatively low affinity for its cognate factor, which ensures that it is only occupied during rapid growth Grainger DC,2008
8H-NS blocks dps transcription by displacing RNA polymerase Grainger DC,2008


Regulation by sRNA    
  Small RNA name (Regulator) Regulation type Mechanism Function Binding Sites Evidence Reference
LeftPos RightPos Sequence (RNA-strand)
  oxyS antisense post-transcriptional regulation repressor       [GEA]
[IMP]
[IPI]
[8]
Notes: "The provided sequence is that of the RNA strand,i.e. 'U's are showed instead the 'T'"




Reference(s)    

 [1] Almiron M., Link AJ., Furlong D., Kolter R., 1992, A novel DNA-binding protein with regulatory and protective roles in starved Escherichia coli., Genes Dev 6(12B):2646-54

 [2] Altuvia S., Almiron M., Huisman G., Kolter R., Storz G., 1994, The dps promoter is activated by OxyR during growth and by IHF and sigma S in stationary phase., Mol Microbiol 13(2):265-72

 [3] Lacour S., Landini P., 2004, SigmaS-dependent gene expression at the onset of stationary phase in Escherichia coli: function of sigmaS-dependent genes and identification of their promoter sequences., J Bacteriol 186(21):7186-95

 [4] Salgado H, Peralta-Gil M, Gama-Castro S, Santos-Zavaleta A, Mu¿¿iz-Rascado L, Garc¿¿a-Sotelo JS, Weiss V, Solano-Lira H, Mart¿¿nez-Flores I, Medina-Rivera A, Salgado-Osorio G, Alquicira-Hern¿¿ndez S, Alquicira-Hern¿¿ndez K, L¿¿pez-Fuentes A, Porr¿¿n-Sotelo L, Huerta AM, Bonavides-Mart¿¿nez C, Balderas-Mart¿¿nez YI, Pannier L, Olvera M, Labastida A, Jim¿¿nez-Jacinto V, Vega-Alvarado L, Del Moral-Ch¿¿vez V, Hern¿¿ndez-Alvarez A, Morett E, Collado-Vides J., 2012, RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more., Nucleic Acids Res.

 [5] Grainger DC., Goldberg MD., Lee DJ., Busby SJ., 2008, Selective repression by Fis and H-NS at the Escherichia coli dps promoter., Mol Microbiol 68(6):1366-77

 [6] Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., Busby SJ., Grainger DC., 2011, The Escherichia coli K-12 MntR Miniregulon Includes dps, Which Encodes the Major Stationary-Phase DNA-Binding Protein., J Bacteriol 193(6):1477-80

 [7] Seo SW., Kim D., Szubin R., Palsson BO., 2015, Genome-wide Reconstruction of OxyR and SoxRS Transcriptional Regulatory Networks under Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655., Cell Rep 12(8):1289-99

 [8] Altuvia S, Zhang A, Argaman L, Tiwari A, Storz G, 1998, The Escherichia coli OxyS regulatory RNA represses fhlA translation by blocking ribosome binding., EMBO J, 1998 Oct 15


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