RegulonDB RegulonDB 9.3:Regulon Page

H-NS DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: H-NS
The H-NS protein, for Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, is a nucleoid-associated multifunctional protein that is capable of condensing |CITS: [10982869]| and supercoiling DNA |CITS: [16384714][15853876][11282470][8306968]|. It is a global transcriptional silencer of genes with high AT content |CITS: [15100692][18387844]|, regulates 5% of all Escherichia coli genes |CITS: [11298273]|, and plays a key role in global chromosome organization in bacteria |CITS: [21903814]|. This protein acts as a pleiotropic transcriptional factor with a strong preference for horizontally acquired genes among the 250 loci to which it binds |CITS: [2126011][17046956]|. H-NS functions almost exclusively as a transcriptional repressor, although there is no clear evidence that this regulator is an activator. Currently, no inducer for this regulator has been reported in the literature, although Reush et al. proposed that this regulator can form a complex with a short chain of polyhydroxybutyrate |CITS: [12220682]|. Additional genes might be identified by high-throughput analysis |CITS: [19151137]|.
H-NS suppresses transcription initiation at many intragenic sites as well as transcription of non-coding RNAs genome-wide |CITS: [24449106]|.
H-NS plays an important role in the regulation of many genes in response to environmental changes and adaptation to stress; therefore, it is capable of controlling its own synthesis |CITS: [7934818][8830277]|. It also regulates transcription of many other genes that participate in a variety of cellular functions, including genes involved in the following processes or responses: biogenesis of flagella |CITS: [8071234][10601207][11872702]|, transcription control of the type I fimbria structural genes |CITS: [9922259][9352908][9595659][7510658][9749677]|, acid resistance |CITS: [16204188]|, the functional glutamic acid-dependent system |CITS: [10383761]|, osmotically inducible genes |CITS: [9663683]|, the glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance system |CITS: [15795232][12446650][11976288][11298273]|, osmotic control |CITS: [8120010][11673423]|, the type II secretion pathway |CITS: [11118204]|, carbon sources |CITS: [2160266]|, genes involved in the RNA component of the small subunit (30S subunit) |CITS: [9632265][15686546]|, and proteases |CITS: [16143461]|, among others.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
H-NS     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: HNS
Sensing class: TFs for DNA-bending
Connectivity class: Global Regulator
Gene name: hns
  Genome position: 1292509-1292922
  Length: 414 bp / 137 aa
Operon name: hns
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) acrE, acrF, adeD, adiA, adiY, alaU, alaV, appY, asr, bglB, bglF, bglG, bglJ, bolA, cadA, cadB, cadC, caiA, caiB, caiC, caiD, caiE, caiF, caiT, cas1, cas2, casA, casB, casC, casD, casE, chiA, cmoM, csiD, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydA, cydB, cysA, cysG, cysM, cysP, cysU, cysW, dctR, degP, dps, entF, evgA, evgS, fau, fepE, fes, fimA, fimB, fimC, fimD, fimE, fimF, fimG, fimH, fimI, flhC, flhD,
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Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
Transcription related (25)
carbon compounds (24)
membrane (23)
activator (21)
operon (17)
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Regulated operon(s) acrEF, adeD, adiA, adiY, appY, argT-hisJQMP, asr, bglGFB, bolA, cadBA, cadC, caiF, caiTABCDE, casABCDE12, chiA, cmoM-mukFEB, csiD-lhgO-gabDTP, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydAB, cysPUWAM, degP, dps, evgAS, fes-ybdZ-entF-fepE, fimAICDFGH, fimB, fimE, flhDC, fliAZ-tcyJ, fliC, ftnA, gadAXW, gadE-mdtEF, galETKM, garPLRK-rnpB, gspAB, gspCDEFGHIJKLMO, hchA, hdeAB-yhiD, hdeD, hdfR, hlyE, hns, ilvIH, lacZYA, leuO, lrp, micF, nhaAR, nirBDC-cysG, nrdAB-yfaE, nrdDG, osmC, proVWX, rcsA, rcsDB, relA-mazEFG, rrsB-gltT-rrlB-rrfB, rrsC-gltU-rrlC-rrfC, rrsD-ileU-alaU-rrlD-rrfD-thrV-rrfF, rrsG-gltW-rrlG-rrfG, rrsH-ileV-alaV-rrlH-rrfH, safA-ydeO,
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First gene in the operon(s) acrE, adeD, adiA, adiY, appY, asr, bglG, bglG, bolA, cadB, cadC, caiF, caiT, casA, chiA, cmoM, csiD, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydA, cydA, cydA, cydA, cysP, degP, dps, evgA, evgA, fes, fimA, fimB, fimB, fimE, flhD, fliA, fliC, ftnA, gadA, gadE, gadW, gadX, gadX, galE, galE, galE, galE, garP, gspA, gspA, gspC, gspC, hchA, hchA, hdeA, hdeD, hdfR, hisJ, hlyE, hns, ilvI, lacZ, leuO, leuO, lrp,
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Simple and complex regulons AcrR,H-NS,HU,IHF,Lrp,MarA,OmpR,Rob,SoxS
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Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  H-NS repressor acrEp Sigma70 nd nd acrE, acrF nd nd [GEA] [1]
  H-NS repressor adep Sigma70 nd nd adeD nd nd [GEA] [2]
  H-NS repressor adiAp Sigma70 nd nd adiA nd nd [GEA] [3]
  H-NS repressor adiYp nd nd nd adiY nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor appYp Sigma70 nd nd appY nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [5]
  H-NS repressor asrp Sigma38 nd nd asr nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [6]
  H-NS repressor bglGp nd 680.0 549.0 bglG, bglF, bglB
3906011 3906025 [BPP], [GEA] [7], [8], [9], [10]
  H-NS repressor bolAp1 Sigma38 nd nd bolA nd nd [GEA] [11]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -317.0 -392.0 cadB, cadA
4360416 4360430 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [4], [12], [13]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -260.0 -335.0 cadB, cadA
4360359 4360373 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [3], [4], [12]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -175.0 -250.0 cadB, cadA
4360274 4360288 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [3], [4], [12]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -129.0 -204.0 cadB, cadA
4360228 4360242 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [3], [4], [12]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -32.0 -107.0 cadB, cadA
4360131 4360145 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [3], [4], [12]
  H-NS repressor cadCp Sigma70 nd nd cadC nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor caiFp Sigma70 nd nd caiF nd nd [GEA] [14]
  H-NS repressor caiTp Sigma70 nd nd caiT, caiA, caiB, caiC, caiD, caiE nd nd [IMP] [15]
  H-NS repressor casp Sigma70 -46.0 -227.0 casA, casB, casC, casD, casE, cas1, cas2
2884358 2884372 [BPP], [GEA] [16], [17], [18]
  H-NS repressor chiAp Sigma70 nd nd chiA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [19]
  H-NS activator cmoMp Sigma70 nd nd cmoM, mukF, mukE, mukB nd nd [GEA] [20]
  H-NS activator csiDp Sigma38 nd nd csiD, lhgO, gabD, gabT, gabP nd nd [GEA] [21]
  H-NS activator csiEp Sigma70 nd nd csiE nd nd [GEA] [11]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -143.5 -303.5 cspA
3719741 3719750 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [22], [23]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -105.5 -265.5 cspA
3719779 3719788 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [22], [23]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -58.0 -218.0 cspA
3719823 3719839 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [22]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -9.5 -169.5 cspA
3719875 3719884 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [22], [23]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 23.5 -137.5 cspA
3719907 3719916 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [22], [23]
  H-NS activator cspDp Sigma70 nd nd cspD nd nd [GEA] [24]
  H-NS repressor cydAp1 Sigma70 nd nd cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [25]
  H-NS repressor cydAp2 Sigma70 nd nd cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [25]
  H-NS repressor cydAp3 Sigma70 nd nd cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [25]
  H-NS repressor cydAp4 Sigma70 nd nd cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [25]
  H-NS repressor cysPp Sigma70 nd nd cysP, cysU, cysW, cysA, cysM nd nd [GEA] [26]
  H-NS repressor degPp Sigma24 nd nd degP nd nd [GEA] [27]
  H-NS repressor dpsp Sigma70 3.5 -36.5 dps
848943 848952 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [28]
  H-NS repressor evgAp1 Sigma38 nd nd evgA, evgS nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor evgAp2 Sigma70 nd nd evgA, evgS nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS activator fesp Sigma70 -0.5 -51.0 fes, ybdZ, entF, fepE
612679 612693 [GEA] [26]
  H-NS activator fimAp Sigma70 nd nd fimA, fimI, fimC, fimD, fimF, fimG, fimH nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [29]
  H-NS repressor fimBp1 Sigma70 nd nd fimB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [30], [31], [32]
  H-NS repressor fimBp2 nd nd nd fimB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [30], [31], [32]
  H-NS repressor fimEp Sigma70 nd nd fimE nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [32], [33]
  H-NS activator flhDp Sigma70 nd nd flhD, flhC nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [34], [35]
  H-NS activator fliAp1 Sigma70 nd nd fliA, fliZ, tcyJ nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [34]
  H-NS activator fliCp Sigma28 nd nd fliC nd nd [GEA] [36]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -131.5 -165.5 ftnA
1988546 1988555 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -101.5 -135.5 ftnA
1988571 1988590 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -83.0 -117.0 ftnA
1988590 1988608 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -56.0 -90.0 ftnA
1988609 1988643 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -20.5 -54.5 ftnA
1988646 1988677 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 15.5 -19.5 ftnA
1988687 1988706 [BPP], [GEA] [37]
  H-NS repressor gadAp Sigma38 nd nd gadA, gadX nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [38], [39], [40]
  H-NS repressor gadEp Sigma38 nd nd gadE, mdtE, mdtF nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor gadWp2 nd nd nd gadW nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor gadXp Sigma38 nd nd gadX, gadW nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [38], [41]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70 -47.0 -73.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
792121 792135 [BPP] [42]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70 -36.0 -62.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
792110 792124 [BPP] [42]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70 -18.0 -44.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
792092 792106 [BPP] [42]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70 -2.0 -28.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
792076 792090 [BPP] [42]
  H-NS repressor garPp Sigma70 nd nd garP, garL, garR, garK, rnpB nd nd [GEA] [26]
  H-NS repressor gspAp1 Sigma70 nd nd gspA, gspB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [43]
  H-NS repressor gspAp2 Sigma70 nd nd gspA, gspB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [43]
  H-NS repressor gspCp2 Sigma70 nd nd gspC, gspD, gspE, gspF, gspG, gspH, gspI, gspJ, gspK, gspL, gspM, gspO nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [43]
  H-NS repressor gspCp3 Sigma70 nd nd gspC, gspD, gspE, gspF, gspG, gspH, gspI, gspJ, gspK, gspL, gspM, gspO nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [43]
  H-NS repressor hchAp Sigma70 nd nd hchA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [44]
  H-NS repressor hchAp2 Sigma38 nd nd hchA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [44]
  H-NS repressor hdeAp Sigma38 -118.0 -169.0 hdeA, hdeB, yhiD
3656902 3656916 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [45], [46], [47]
  H-NS repressor hdeDp Sigma70 nd nd hdeD nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [47]
  H-NS repressor hdfRp Sigma38 nd nd hdfR nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS activator hisJp Sigma70 nd nd hisJ, hisQ, hisM, hisP nd nd [GEA] [26]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -56.5 -128.0 hlyE
1230515 1230529 [BPP], [GEA] [48], [49], [50]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -6.0 -78.0 hlyE
1230465 1230479 [BPP], [GEA] [48], [49], [50]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -182.0 -218.0 hns
1293133 1293147 [BPP], [GEA] [51], [52], [53], [54]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -113.0 -149.0 hns
1293064 1293078 [BPP], [GEA] [51], [52], [53], [54]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -40.0 -76.0 hns
1292991 1293005 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [51], [52], [53], [54], [55]
  H-NS repressor ilvIHp1 Sigma70 nd nd ilvI, ilvH nd nd [GEA] [56]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -67.0 -105.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366403 366417 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -54.0 -92.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366390 366404 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -31.0 -69.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366367 366381 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -5.0 -43.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366341 366355 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 6.0 -33.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366331 366345 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 24.0 -15.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
366313 366327 [BPP] [42], [57]
  H-NS repressor leuOp Sigma70 -96.0 -276.0 leuO
84085 84099 [GEA], [HIBSCS] [58], [59]
  H-NS repressor leuOp2 nd -212.0 -276.0 leuO
84085 84099 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [58], [59]
  H-NS repressor lrpp Sigma70 nd nd lrp nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [60]
  H-NS repressor micFp Sigma70 nd nd micF nd nd [GEA] [61], [62]
  H-NS repressor nhaAp1 Sigma70 nd nd nhaA, nhaR nd nd [GEA] [63]
  H-NS repressor nirBp Sigma70 nd nd nirB, nirD, nirC, cysG nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [64], [65]
  H-NS repressor nrdAp Sigma70 -439.0 -549.0 nrdA, nrdB, yfaE
2344309 2344323 [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [66]
  H-NS repressor nrdAp Sigma70 -415.0 -525.0 nrdA, nrdB, yfaE
2344333 2344347 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [66]
  H-NS repressor nrdDp Sigma70 nd nd nrdD, nrdG nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [66]
  H-NS repressor osmCp1 Sigma70 nd nd osmC nd nd [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor osmCp2 Sigma38 nd nd osmC nd nd [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor proVp1 Sigma70 nd nd proV, proW, proX nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [68], [69]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 -33.0 -93.0 proV, proW, proX
2804715 2804729 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 7.0 -54.0 proV, proW, proX
2804754 2804768 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 26.0 -35.0 proV, proW, proX
2804773 2804787 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 45.0 -16.0 proV, proW, proX
2804792 2804806 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 72.0 11.0 proV, proW, proX
2804819 2804833 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 84.0 23.0 proV, proW, proX
2804831 2804845 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 100.0 39.0 proV, proW, proX
2804847 2804861 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 130.0 69.0 proV, proW, proX
2804877 2804891 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 156.0 95.0 proV, proW, proX
2804903 2804917 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 170.0 109.0 proV, proW, proX
2804917 2804931 [BPP] [68], [69], [70]
  H-NS repressor rcsAp Sigma70 nd nd rcsA nd nd [GEA] [71], [72], [73]
  H-NS repressor rcsDp Sigma70 nd nd rcsD, rcsB nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS activator relAp2 Sigma70 nd nd relA, mazE, mazF nd nd [GEA] [74]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32 -83.0 -375.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
4166277 4166291 [BPP] [75]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32 -50.0 -342.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
4166310 4166324 [BPP] [75]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32 -26.0 -318.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
4166334 4166348 [BPP] [75]
  H-NS repressor rrsCp1 Sigma32 nd nd rrsC, gltU, rrlC, rrfC nd nd [GEA] [76], [77]
  H-NS repressor rrsDp1 Sigma32 nd nd rrsD, ileU, alaU, rrlD, rrfD, thrV, rrfF nd nd [GEA] [76], [77]
  H-NS repressor rrsGp1 Sigma32 nd nd rrsG, gltW, rrlG, rrfG nd nd [GEA], [TAS] [76], [77]
  H-NS repressor rrsHp1 Sigma32 nd nd rrsH, ileV, alaV, rrlH, rrfH nd nd [GEA] [76], [77]
  H-NS repressor slpp Sigma70 nd nd slp, dctR nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS activator srlAp Sigma70 nd nd srlA, srlE, srlB, srlD, gutM, srlR, gutQ nd nd [GEA] [26]
  H-NS repressor ssrSp1 Sigma70 nd nd ssrS, fau nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [78]
  H-NS repressor ssrSp2 Sigma38 nd nd ssrS, fau nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [78]
  H-NS repressor stpAp1 Sigma70 nd nd stpA nd nd [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [79], [80]
  H-NS repressor yciGp Sigma38 -88.5 -145.5 yciG, yciF, yciE
1316176 1316185 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [47], [81]
  H-NS repressor yciGp Sigma38 -65.5 -122.5 yciG, yciF, yciE
1316153 1316162 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [47], [81]
  H-NS repressor ydeOp Sigma32 nd nd ydeO nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor ydePp Sigma70 nd nd ydeP nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor yhiMp Sigma38 nd nd yhiM nd nd [BPP] [4]
  H-NS repressor yjjPp nd -174.5 -350.5 yjjP
4603204 4603213 [BPP] [82]
  H-NS repressor yjjPp nd -161.5 -337.5 yjjP
4603191 4603200 [BPP] [82]
  H-NS repressor yjjQp Sigma70 -123.5 -281.5 yjjQ, bglJ
4603191 4603200 [BPP] [82]
  H-NS repressor yjjQp Sigma70 -110.5 -268.5 yjjQ, bglJ
4603204 4603213 [BPP] [82]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype

 [AIBSCS] Automated inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [SM] Site mutation

 [TAS] Traceable author statement

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts


 [1] Nishino K., Yamaguchi A., 2004, Role of histone-like protein H-NS in multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 186(5):1423-9

 [2] Petersen C., Moller LB., Valentin-Hansen P., 2002, The cryptic adenine deaminase gene of Escherichia coli. Silencing by the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein, H-NS, and activation by insertion elements., J Biol Chem. 277(35):31373-80

 [3] Shi X., Waasdorp BC., Bennett GN., 1993, Modulation of acid-induced amino acid decarboxylase gene expression by hns in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 175(4):1182-6

 [4] Krin E., Danchin A., Soutourina O., 2010, Decrypting the H-NS-dependent regulatory cascade of acid stress resistance in Escherichia coli., BMC Microbiol. 10:273

 [5] Atlung T., Sund S., Olesen K., Brondsted L., 1996, The histone-like protein H-NS acts as a transcriptional repressor for expression of the anaerobic and growth phase activator AppY of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 178(12):3418-25

 [6] Seputiene V., Suziedelis K., Normark S., Melefors O., Suziedeliene E., 2004, Transcriptional analysis of the acid-inducible asr gene in enterobacteria., Res Microbiol. 155(7):535-42

 [7] Dole S., Nagarajavel V., Schnetz K., 2004, The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter., Mol Microbiol. 52(2):589-600

 [8] Schnetz K., Wang JC., 1996, Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro., Nucleic Acids Res. 24(12):2422-8

 [9] Ueguchi C., Ohta T., Seto C., Suzuki T., Mizuno T., 1998, The leuO gene product has a latent ability to relieve bgl silencing in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 180(1):190-3

 [10] Venkatesh GR., Kembou Koungni FC., Paukner A., Stratmann T., Blissenbach B., Schnetz K., 2010, BglJ-RcsB heterodimers relieve repression of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS., J Bacteriol. 192(24):6456-64

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