RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.0:Regulon Page
   

H-NS DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: H-NS
Summary:
The H-NS protein, for "Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein," is a nucleoid-associated multifunctional protein that is capable of condensing [] and supercoiling DNA [5, 25]. It is a global transcriptional silencer of genes with high AT content [6], regulates 5% of all Escherichia coli genes [65], and plays a key role in global chromosome organization in bacteria [105]. This protein acts as a pleiotropic transcriptional factor with a strong preference for horizontally acquired genes among the 250 loci to which it binds [24]. H-NS functions almost exclusively as a transcriptional repressor, although there is no clear evidence that this regulator is an activator.
Read more >


Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
H-NS Functional   [APPH], [HIFS], [IEP], [IMP], [IPI] [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25]
Evolutionary Family: HNS
Sensing class: TFs for DNA-bending
Connectivity class: Global Regulator
Gene name: hns
  Genome position: 1292509-1292922
  Length: 414 bp / 137 aa
Operon name: hns
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
hns
hnsp


Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) acrE, acrF, adeD, adiA, adiY, alaU, alaV, appY, asr, bglB, bglF, bglG, bglJ, bolA, cadA, cadB, cadC, caiA, caiB, caiC, caiD, caiE, caiF, caiT, cas1, cas2, casA, casB, casC, casD, casE, chiA, cmoM, csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG, csiD, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydA, cydB, cysA, cysG, cysM, cysP, cysU, cysW, dctR, degP, dps, entF, evgA, evgS, fau, fepE, fes, fimA, fimB, fimC, fimD, fimE, fimF, fimG,
Read more >
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
membrane (26)
Transcription related (26)
carbon compounds (23)
activator (22)
operon (17)
Read more >
Regulated operon(s) acrEF, adeD, adiA, adiY, appY, argT-hisJQMP, asr, bglGFB, bolA, cadBA, cadC, caiF, caiTABCDE, casABCDE12, chiA, cmoM-mukFEB, csgDEFG, csiD-lhgO-gabDTP, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydAB, cysPUWAM, degP, dps, evgAS, fes-ybdZ-entF-fepE, fimAICDFGH, fimB, fimE, flhDC, fliAZ-tcyJ, fliC, ftnA, gadAXW, gadEF-mdtEF, galETKM, garPLRK-rnpB, gspAB, gspCDEFGHIJKLMO, hchA, hdeAB-yhiD, hdeD, hdfR, hlyE, hns, ilvIH, lacZYA, leuO, lrp, mdtJI, micF, nhaAR, nirBDC-cysG, nrdAB-yfaE, nrdDG, osmC, proVWX, rcsA, rcsDB, relA-mazEFG, rrsB-gltT-rrlB-rrfB, rrsC-gltU-rrlC-rrfC, rrsD-ileU-alaU-rrlD-rrfD-thrV-rrfF, rrsG-gltW-rrlG-rrfG,
Read more >
First gene in the operon(s) acrE, adeD, adiA, adiY, appY, asr, bglG, bglG, bolA, cadB, cadC, caiF, caiT, casA, chiA, cmoM, csgD, csiD, csiE, cspA, cspD, cydA, cydA, cydA, cydA, cysP, degP, dps, evgA, evgA, fes, fimA, fimB, fimB, fimE, flhD, fliA, fliC, ftnA, gadA, gadE, gadW, gadX, gadX, galE, galE, galE, galE, garP, gspA, gspA, gspC, gspC, hchA, hchA, hdeA, hdeD, hdfR, hisJ, hlyE, hns, ilvI, lacZ, leuO, leuO,
Read more >
Simple and complex regulons AcrR,CRP,FliZ,Fur,H-NS,HdfR,IHF,LrhA,MatA,OmpR,QseB,RcsAB,YjjQ
AcrR,H-NS,HU,IHF,Lrp,MarA,OmpR,Rob,SoxS
AdiY,ArcA,CRP,FNR,Fis,GadE-RcsB,GadW,GadX,H-NS,RcsB,TorR
AdiY,H-NS,IHF
ArcA,CRP,CaiF,FNR,H-NS
Read more >
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[H-NS,-](19)
[H-NS,+-](1)
[H-NS,+](1)


Transcription factor regulation    


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements
      

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  H-NS repressor acrEp Sigma70 nd -3413864.0 acrE, acrF nd nd [GEA] [26]
  H-NS repressor adep Sigma70 nd -3843964.0 adeD nd nd [GEA] [27]
  H-NS repressor adiAp Sigma70 nd 4340521.0 adiA nd nd [GEA] [28]
  H-NS repressor adiYp nd nd 4337929.0 adiY nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor appYp Sigma70 nd -583681.0 appY nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [30]
  H-NS repressor asrp Sigma38, Sigma70 nd -1671376.0 asr nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [31]
  H-NS repressor bglGp nd 680.0 549.0 bglG, bglF, bglB
aaattttattAATTGCAGCATTTCGcgcattaact
3906011 3906025 [BPP], [GEA] [32], [33], [34], [35]
  H-NS repressor bolAp1 Sigma38, Sigma70 nd -454472.0 bolA nd nd [GEA] [36]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -317.0 -392.0 cadB, cadA
gcaagaaattTGTCGAGATAAGGTAcaacataagg
4360416 4360430 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [29], [37], [38]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -260.0 -335.0 cadB, cadA
aaaactcaacAACAAATATTTCCGAgcataaatca
4360359 4360373 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [28], [29], [37]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -175.0 -250.0 cadB, cadA
cgtgacattcTCTGGTTAAATTTATgtaataaaaa
4360274 4360288 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [28], [29], [37]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -129.0 -204.0 cadB, cadA
agttgatatcATGAAAAGATAAACAtttaatgttt
4360228 4360242 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [28], [29], [37]
  H-NS repressor cadBp Sigma70 -32.0 -107.0 cadB, cadA
tcacgaaaaaAGGATTAATCCTAAAgattaggtga
4360131 4360145 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [28], [29], [37]
  H-NS repressor cadCp Sigma70 nd 4361934.0 cadC nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor caiFp Sigma70 nd -34300.0 caiF nd nd [GEA] [39]
  H-NS repressor caiTp Sigma70 nd 41931.0 caiT, caiA, caiB, caiC, caiD, caiE nd nd [IMP] [40]
  H-NS repressor casAp Sigma70 -46.0 -227.0 casA, casB, casC, casD, casE, cas1, cas2
tctgcaagttATTCGTTTTATTATTaaagaaactt
2884358 2884372 [BPP], [GEA] [41], [42], [43]
  H-NS repressor chiAp Sigma70 nd 3469853.0 chiA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [44]
  H-NS activator cmoMp Sigma70 nd -973537.0 cmoM, mukF, mukE, mukB nd nd [GEA] [45]
  H-NS repressor csgDp1 Sigma38, Sigma70 nd 1103196.0 csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [46]
  H-NS activator csiDp Sigma38 nd -2788985.0 csiD, lhgO, gabD, gabT, gabP nd nd [GEA] [47]
  H-NS activator csiEp Sigma70, Sigma38 nd -2665435.0 csiE nd nd [GEA] [36]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -143.5 -303.0 cspA
aagccaacccGGCATTAAGTaagcagttga
3719741 3719751 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13], [48]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -105.5 -265.0 cspA
acttttatccACTTTATTGCtgtttacggt
3719779 3719789 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13], [48]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -58.0 -217.5 cspA
cgttttccaaCCGATTAATCATAAATAtgaaaaataa
3719823 3719840 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [48]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 -9.5 -169.0 cspA
ccaatgcgtgGCTTAATGCAcatcaacggt
3719875 3719885 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13], [48]
  H-NS repressor cspAp1 Sigma70 23.5 -137.0 cspA
gacgtacagaCCATTAAAGCagtgtagtaa
3719907 3719917 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13], [48]
  H-NS activator cspDp Sigma70 nd 922590.0 cspD nd nd [GEA] [49]
  H-NS repressor cydAp1 Sigma70 nd -771458.0 cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [50]
  H-NS repressor cydAp2 Sigma70 nd -771458.0 cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [50]
  H-NS repressor cydAp3 Sigma70 nd -771458.0 cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [50]
  H-NS repressor cydAp4 Sigma70 nd -771458.0 cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [50]
  H-NS repressor cysPp Sigma70 nd 2543528.0 cysP, cysU, cysW, cysA, cysM nd nd [GEA] [51]
  H-NS repressor degPp Sigma24 nd -180884.0 degP nd nd [GEA] [52]
  H-NS repressor dpsp Sigma70, Sigma38 3.5 -37.0 dps
tatgtcccagTAATTAACGAgattaagtat
848943 848953 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [53]
  H-NS repressor evgAp1 Sigma38 nd -2483755.0 evgA, evgS nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor evgAp2 Sigma70 nd -2483755.0 evgA, evgS nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS activator fesp Sigma70 -0.5 -51.0 fes, ybdZ, entF, fepE
tatcaataatATTATCAATATATTTctgcaatcaa
612679 612693 [GEA] [51]
  H-NS activator fimAp Sigma70 nd -4543115.0 fimA, fimI, fimC, fimD, fimF, fimG, fimH nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [54]
  H-NS repressor fimBp1 Sigma70 nd -4540957.0 fimB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [55], [56], [57]
  H-NS repressor fimBp2 nd nd -4540957.0 fimB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [55], [56], [57]
  H-NS repressor fimEp Sigma70 nd -4542037.0 fimE nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [57], [58]
  H-NS activator flhDp Sigma70 nd 1978197.0 flhD, flhC nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [59], [60]
  H-NS activator fliAp1 Sigma70 nd 2001789.0 fliA, fliZ, tcyJ nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [59]
  H-NS activator fliCp Sigma28 nd 2003606.0 fliC nd nd [GEA] [61]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -131.5 -165.0 ftnA
ctttctctaaATATTTTAATcagcgagggg
1988546 1988556 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -101.5 -135.0 ftnA
aggggatcttCGCTGATTAAAGAAATAGCGgtaatgcgtt
1988571 1988591 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -83.0 -116.5 ftnA
aagaaatagcGGTAATGCGTTTTATTCCCattcgtattt
1988590 1988609 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -56.0 -89.5 ftnA
ttttattcccATTCGTATTTTTAATAATTGAAGTTTATATTTTACcttttgcaaa
1988609 1988644 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 -20.5 -54.0 ftnA
tattttacctTTTGCAAATAATAAAATAACAAATTATAGTGAcgccacagca
1988646 1988678 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor ftnAp Sigma70 15.5 -19.0 ftnA
acgccacagcAACAAATATAACCTTTGTGGagcactatca
1988687 1988707 [BPP], [GEA] [62]
  H-NS repressor gadAp Sigma38, Sigma70, Sigma38, Sigma70 nd 3667580.0 gadA, gadX nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [9], [63], [64]
  H-NS repressor gadEp Sigma38 nd -3658366.0 gadE, gadF, mdtE, mdtF nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor gadWp2 nd nd 3664618.0 gadW nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor gadXp Sigma38 nd 3665810.0 gadX, gadW nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [9], [65]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70, Sigma38 -47.0 -73.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
aaagtgtgacATGGAATAAATTAGTggaatcgttt
792121 792135 [BPP] [66]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70, Sigma38 -36.0 -62.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
caaagatgcgAAAAGTGTGACATGGaataaattag
792110 792124 [BPP] [66]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70, Sigma38 -18.0 -44.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
gaaataaccaTAGCATAACAAAGATgcgaaaagtg
792092 792106 [BPP] [66]
  H-NS repressor galEp1 Sigma70, Sigma38 -2.0 -28.0 galE, galT, galK, galM
attaggcttaTGGTATGAAATAACCatagcataac
792076 792090 [BPP] [66]
  H-NS repressor garPp Sigma70 nd 3274907.0 garP, garL, garR, garK, rnpB nd nd [GEA] [51]
  H-NS repressor gspAp1 Sigma70 nd 3455398.0 gspA, gspB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor gspAp2 Sigma70 nd 3455398.0 gspA, gspB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor gspCp2 Sigma70 nd -3455578.0 gspC, gspD, gspE, gspF, gspG, gspH, gspI, gspJ, gspK, gspL, gspM, gspO nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor gspCp3 Sigma70 nd -3455578.0 gspC, gspD, gspE, gspF, gspG, gspH, gspI, gspJ, gspK, gspL, gspM, gspO nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [67]
  H-NS repressor hchAp Sigma70 nd -2035835.0 hchA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [68]
  H-NS repressor hchAp2 Sigma38 nd -2035835.0 hchA nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [68]
  H-NS repressor hdeAp Sigma38, Sigma70, Sigma70, Sigma38 -118.0 -169.0 hdeA, hdeB, yhiD
actgcaattaGGAAATTTTTATTAAatcgactgca
3656902 3656916 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [69], [70], [71]
  H-NS repressor hdeDp Sigma70 nd -3656995.0 hdeD nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [71]
  H-NS repressor hdfRp Sigma38 nd 3947967.0 hdfR nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS activator hisJp Sigma70 nd 2426788.0 hisJ, hisQ, hisM, hisP nd nd [GEA] [51]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -56.5 -128.0 hlyE
ctttatttctATTAATATGATAAATatcaaacaat
1230515 1230529 [BPP], [GEA] [72], [73], [74]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -56.5 -128.0 hlyE
ctttatttctATTAATATGATAAATatcaaacaat
1230515 1230529 [BPP], [GEA] [72], [73], [74]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -6.0 -78.0 hlyE
aaattttactTCATCTAATTCATAGttagccgggc
1230465 1230479 [BPP], [GEA] [72], [73], [74]
  H-NS dual hlyEp nd -6.0 -78.0 hlyE
aaattttactTCATCTAATTCATAGttagccgggc
1230465 1230479 [BPP], [GEA] [72], [73], [74]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -182.0 -218.0 hns
gttaaaacttCCTGATTCATGTCACattttatggg
1293133 1293147 [BPP], [GEA] [8], [20], [75], [76]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -113.0 -149.0 hns
ttcataaaatTAGCCAGAAAAGACGcggcatatag
1293064 1293078 [BPP], [GEA] [8], [20], [75], [76]
  H-NS repressor hnsp Sigma70 -40.0 -76.0 hns
ttcagttgtgCAATAGCCAGGAATGtaaggaattc
1292991 1293005 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [8], [20], [75], [76], [77]
  H-NS repressor ilvIHp1 Sigma70 nd -85630.0 ilvI, ilvH nd nd [GEA] [78]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -67.0 -105.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
aatgagtgagCTAACTCACATTAATtgcgttgcgc
366403 366417 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -54.0 -92.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
gcctggggtgCCTAATGAGTGAGCTaactcacatt
366390 366404 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -31.0 -69.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
gagccggaagCATAAAGTGTAAAGCctggggtgcc
366367 366381 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 -5.0 -43.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
tccgctcacaATTCCACACAACATAcgagccggaa
366341 366355 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 6.0 -33.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
gaaattgttaTCCGCTCACAATTCCacacaacata
366331 366345 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor lacZp1 Sigma70 24.0 -15.0 lacZ, lacY, lacA
catagctgttTCCTGTGTGAAATTGttatccgctc
366313 366327 [BPP] [66], [79]
  H-NS repressor leuOp Sigma70 -96.0 -276.0 leuO
aaattaattaTTAAATAAGCACATTtaatccattt
84085 84099 [GEA], [HIBSCS] [80], [81]
  H-NS repressor leuOp2 nd -212.0 -276.0 leuO
aaattaattaTTAAATAAGCACATTtaatccattt
84085 84099 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [80], [81]
  H-NS repressor lrpp Sigma70 nd -932595.0 lrp nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [82]
  H-NS repressor mdtJp Sigma70 -10.5 -289.0 mdtJ, mdtI
acacgcctgaTTTGTATCATagcttaagaa
1673785 1673795 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [83]
  H-NS repressor mdtJp Sigma70 240.5 -39.0 mdtJ, mdtI
attttaatttTCGCTTAATTcagcgaaacc
1673535 1673545 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [83]
  H-NS repressor mdtJp Sigma70 288.5 9.0 mdtJ, mdtI
ctaataaaatCCAATAAATAtacattgtcc
1673487 1673497 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [83]
  H-NS repressor micFp Sigma70 nd -2313084.0 micF nd nd [GEA] [84], [85]
  H-NS repressor nhaAp1 Sigma70 nd -17489.0 nhaA, nhaR nd nd [GEA] [86]
  H-NS repressor nirBp Sigma70 nd -3494011.0 nirB, nirD, nirC, cysG nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [87], [88]
  H-NS repressor nrdAp Sigma70 -439.0 -549.0 nrdA, nrdB, yfaE
gtgcgtcataATTCAAGTTAATAACcttcagggat
2344309 2344323 [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [89]
  H-NS repressor nrdAp Sigma70 -415.0 -525.0 nrdA, nrdB, yfaE
ccttcagggaTATCAGTTATATTTAaactaaatta
2344333 2344347 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [89]
  H-NS repressor nrdDp Sigma70 nd 4462660.0 nrdD, nrdG nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [89]
  H-NS repressor osmCp1 Sigma70 nd -1556625.0 osmC nd nd [GEA] [90]
  H-NS repressor osmCp2 Sigma38 nd -1556625.0 osmC nd nd [GEA] [90]
  H-NS repressor proVp1 Sigma70, Sigma38 nd -2804815.0 proV, proW, proX nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [91], [92]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 -33.0 -93.0 proV, proW, proX
atttgccatcAGGGGTTGCCTCAGAttctcagtat
2804715 2804729 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 7.0 -54.0 proV, proW, proX
gggtagaaaaAAGTGACTATTTCCAttgggtaata
2804754 2804768 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 26.0 -35.0 proV, proW, proX
tttccattggGTAATATATCGACATagacaaataa
2804773 2804787 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 45.0 -16.0 proV, proW, proX
cgacatagacAAATAAAGGAATCTTtctattgcat
2804792 2804806 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 72.0 11.0 proV, proW, proX
tattgcatggCAATTAAATTAGAAAttaaaaatct
2804819 2804833 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 84.0 23.0 proV, proW, proX
attaaattagAAATTAAAAATCTTTataaaatatt
2804831 2804845 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 100.0 39.0 proV, proW, proX
aaaatctttaTAAAATATTTGGCGAgcatccacag
2804847 2804861 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 130.0 69.0 proV, proW, proX
cacagcgagcGTTCAAATATATCGAacaaggactt
2804877 2804891 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 156.0 95.0 proV, proW, proX
caaggactttCAAAAGAACAAATTCtggaaaaaac
2804903 2804917 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor proVp3 Sigma70 170.0 109.0 proV, proW, proX
agaacaaattCTGGAAAAAACTGGGctatcgcttg
2804917 2804931 [BPP] [91], [92], [93]
  H-NS repressor rcsAp Sigma70 nd -2023968.0 rcsA nd nd [GEA] [94], [95], [96]
  H-NS repressor rcsDp Sigma70 nd -2313488.0 rcsD, rcsB nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS activator relAp2 Sigma70 nd 2913651.0 relA, mazE, mazF nd nd [GEA] [97]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 -83.0 -375.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
actggcagttTTAGGCTGATTTGGTtgaatgttgc
4166277 4166291 [BPP] [98]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 -50.0 -342.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
gcgcggtcagAAAATTATTTTAAATttcctcttgt
4166310 4166324 [BPP] [98]
  H-NS repressor rrsBp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 -26.0 -318.0 rrsB, gltT, rrlB, rrfB
tttcctcttgTCAGGCCGGAATAACtccctataat
4166334 4166348 [BPP] [98]
  H-NS repressor rrsCp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 nd -3941808.0 rrsC, gltU, rrlC, rrfC nd nd [GEA] [99], [100]
  H-NS repressor rrsDp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 nd 3428762.0 rrsD, ileU, alaU, rrlD, rrfD, thrV, rrfF nd nd [GEA] [99], [100]
  H-NS repressor rrsGp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 nd 2731157.0 rrsG, gltW, rrlG, rrfG nd nd [GEA], [TAS] [99], [100]
  H-NS repressor rrsHp1 Sigma32, Sigma70 nd -223771.0 rrsH, ileV, alaV, rrlH, rrfH nd nd [GEA] [99], [100]
  H-NS repressor slpp Sigma70 nd -3653961.0 slp, dctR nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS activator srlAp Sigma70 nd -2825832.0 srlA, srlE, srlB, srlD, gutM, srlR, gutQ nd nd [GEA] [51]
  H-NS repressor ssrSp1 Sigma70 nd -3055983.0 ssrS, fau nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [101]
  H-NS repressor ssrSp2 Sigma38, Sigma70 nd -3055983.0 ssrS, fau nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [101]
  H-NS repressor stpAp1 Sigma70 nd 2798495.0 stpA nd nd [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [18], [102]
  H-NS repressor yciGp Sigma38 -88.5 -146.0 yciG, yciF, yciE
aggaacattcTGGATATATTaacaattacc
1316176 1316186 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [71], [103]
  H-NS repressor yciGp Sigma38 -65.5 -123.0 yciG, yciF, yciE
agatagagggAAAATATATTttgaggaaca
1316153 1316163 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [71], [103]
  H-NS repressor ydeOp Sigma32 nd 1583687.0 ydeO nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor ydePp Sigma70 nd 1586486.0 ydeP nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor yhiMp Sigma38 nd -3634841.0 yhiM nd nd [BPP] [29]
  H-NS repressor yjjPp nd -174.5 -351.0 yjjP
tttaattataAATTAAATGAatgtgatttc
4603204 4603214 [BPP] [104]
  H-NS repressor yjjPp nd -161.5 -338.0 yjjP
ggaagggataTCATTTAATTataaattaaa
4603191 4603201 [BPP] [104]
  H-NS repressor yjjQp Sigma70 -123.5 -281.0 yjjQ, bglJ
tttaatttatAATTAAATGAtatcccttcc
4603191 4603201 [BPP] [104]
  H-NS repressor yjjQp Sigma70 -110.5 -268.0 yjjQ, bglJ
gaaatcacatTCATTTAATTtataattaaa
4603204 4603214 [BPP] [104]


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


Evidence    

 [APPH] Assay of protein purified to homogeneity

 [HIFS] Human inference of function from sequence

 [IEP] Inferred from expression pattern

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype

 [IPI] Inferred from physical interaction

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [AIBSCS] Automated inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [SM] Site mutation

 [TAS] Traceable author statement

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts



Reference(s)    

 [1] Becker NA., Kahn JD., Maher LJ., 2007, Effects of nucleoid proteins on DNA repression loop formation in Escherichia coli., Nucleic Acids Res 35(12):3988-4000

 [2] Bertin P., Benhabiles N., Krin E., Laurent-Winter C., Tendeng C., Turlin E., Thomas A., Danchin A., Brasseur R., 1999, The structural and functional organization of H-NS-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved in gram-negative bacteria., Mol Microbiol 31(1):319-29

 [3] Bertin P., Hommais F., Krin E., Soutourina O., Tendeng C., Derzelle S., Danchin A., 2001, H-NS and H-NS-like proteins in Gram-negative bacteria and their multiple role in the regulation of bacterial metabolism., Biochimie 83(2):235-41

 [4] Corbett D., Bennett HJ., Askar H., Green J., Roberts IS., 2007, SlyA and H-NS regulate transcription of the Escherichia coli K5 capsule gene cluster, and expression of slyA in Escherichia coli is temperature-dependent, positively autoregulated, and independent of H-NS., J Biol Chem 282(46):33326-35

 [5] Dame RT., 2005, The role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization and compaction of bacterial chromatin., Mol Microbiol 56(4):858-70

 [6] Dorman CJ., 2004, H-NS: a universal regulator for a dynamic genome., Nat Rev Microbiol 2(5):391-400

 [7] Falconi M., Gualtieri MT., La Teana A., Losso MA., Pon CL., 1988, Proteins from the prokaryotic nucleoid: primary and quaternary structure of the 15-kD Escherichia coli DNA binding protein H-NS., Mol Microbiol 2(3):323-9

 [8] Falconi M., Higgins NP., Spurio R., Pon CL., Gualerzi CO., 1993, Expression of the gene encoding the major bacterial nucleotide protein H-NS is subject to transcriptional auto-repression., Mol Microbiol 10(2):273-82

 [9] Giangrossi M., Zattoni S., Tramonti A., De Biase D., Falconi M., 2005, Antagonistic role of H-NS and GadX in the regulation of the glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance system in Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem 280(22):21498-505

 [10] Goransson M., Sonden B., Nilsson P., Dagberg B., Forsman K., Emanuelsson K., Uhlin BE., 1990, Transcriptional silencing and thermoregulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli., Nature 344(6267):682-5

 [11] Kajitani M., Ishihama A., 1991, Identification and sequence determination of the host factor gene for bacteriophage Q beta., Nucleic Acids Res 19(5):1063-6

 [12] Laine B., Sautiere P., Spassky A., Rimsky S., 1984, A DNA-binding protein from E. coli isolation, characterization and its relationship with proteins H1 and B1., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 119(3):1147-53

 [13] Lang B., Blot N., Bouffartigues E., Buckle M., Geertz M., Gualerzi CO., Mavathur R., Muskhelishvili G., Pon CL., Rimsky S., Stella S., Babu MM., Travers A., 2007, High-affinity DNA binding sites for H-NS provide a molecular basis for selective silencing within proteobacterial genomes., Nucleic Acids Res 35(18):6330-7

 [14] Luijsterburg MS., Noom MC., Wuite GJ., Dame RT., 2006, The architectural role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization of bacterial chromatin: a molecular perspective., J Struct Biol 156(2):262-72

 [15] Madrid C., Balsalobre C., Garcia J., Juarez A., 2007, The novel Hha/YmoA family of nucleoid-associated proteins: use of structural mimicry to modulate the activity of the H-NS family of proteins., Mol Microbiol 63(1):7-14

 [16] May G., Dersch P., Haardt M., Middendorf A., Bremer E., 1990, The osmZ (bglY) gene encodes the DNA-binding protein H-NS (H1a), a component of the Escherichia coli K12 nucleoid., Mol Gen Genet 224(1):81-90

 [17] Pon CL., Calogero RA., Gualerzi CO., 1988, Identification, cloning, nucleotide sequence and chromosomal map location of hns, the structural gene for Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein H-NS., Mol Gen Genet 212(2):199-202

 [18] Sonden B., Uhlin BE., 1996, Coordinated and differential expression of histone-like proteins in Escherichia coli: regulation and function of the H-NS analog StpA., EMBO J 15(18):4970-80

 [19] Ueguchi C., Ito K., 1992, Multicopy suppression: an approach to understanding intracellular functioning of the protein export system., J Bacteriol 174(5):1454-61

 [20] Ueguchi C., Kakeda M., Mizuno T., 1993, Autoregulatory expression of the Escherichia coli hns gene encoding a nucleoid protein: H-NS functions as a repressor of its own transcription., Mol Gen Genet 236(2-3):171-8

 [21] Ussery DW., Hinton JC., Jordi BJ., Granum PE., Seirafi A., Stephen RJ., Tupper AE., Berridge G., Sidebotham JM., Higgins CF., 1994, The chromatin-associated protein H-NS., Biochimie 76(10-11):968-80

 [22] Williams RM., Rimsky S., 1997, Molecular aspects of the E. coli nucleoid protein, H-NS: a central controller of gene regulatory networks., FEMS Microbiol Lett 156(2):175-85

 [23] Wolf T., Janzen W., Blum C., Schnetz K., 2006, Differential dependence of StpA on H-NS in autoregulation of stpA and in regulation of bgl., J Bacteriol 188(19):6728-38

 [24] Yamada H., Muramatsu S., Mizuno T., 1990, An Escherichia coli protein that preferentially binds to sharply curved DNA., J Biochem (Tokyo) 108(3):420-5

 [25] Zimmerman SB., 2006, Cooperative transitions of isolated Escherichia coli nucleoids: implications for the nucleoid as a cellular phase., J Struct Biol 153(2):160-75

 [26] Nishino K., Yamaguchi A., 2004, Role of histone-like protein H-NS in multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 186(5):1423-9

 [27] Petersen C., Moller LB., Valentin-Hansen P., 2002, The cryptic adenine deaminase gene of Escherichia coli. Silencing by the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein, H-NS, and activation by insertion elements., J Biol Chem 277(35):31373-80

 [28] Shi X., Waasdorp BC., Bennett GN., 1993, Modulation of acid-induced amino acid decarboxylase gene expression by hns in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 175(4):1182-6

 [29] Krin E., Danchin A., Soutourina O., 2010, Decrypting the H-NS-dependent regulatory cascade of acid stress resistance in Escherichia coli., BMC Microbiol 10:273

 [30] Atlung T., Sund S., Olesen K., Brondsted L., 1996, The histone-like protein H-NS acts as a transcriptional repressor for expression of the anaerobic and growth phase activator AppY of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 178(12):3418-25

 [31] Seputiene V., Suziedelis K., Normark S., Melefors O., Suziedeliene E., 2004, Transcriptional analysis of the acid-inducible asr gene in enterobacteria., Res Microbiol 155(7):535-42

 [32] Dole S., Nagarajavel V., Schnetz K., 2004, The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter., Mol Microbiol 52(2):589-600

 [33] Schnetz K., Wang JC., 1996, Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro., Nucleic Acids Res 24(12):2422-8

 [34] Ueguchi C., Ohta T., Seto C., Suzuki T., Mizuno T., 1998, The leuO gene product has a latent ability to relieve bgl silencing in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 180(1):190-3

 [35] Venkatesh GR., Kembou Koungni FC., Paukner A., Stratmann T., Blissenbach B., Schnetz K., 2010, BglJ-RcsB heterodimers relieve repression of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS., J Bacteriol 192(24):6456-64

 [36] Barth M., Marschall C., Muffler A., Fischer D., Hengge-Aronis R., 1995, Role for the histone-like protein H-NS in growth phase-dependent and osmotic regulation of sigma S and many sigma S-dependent genes in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 177(12):3455-64

 [37] Kuper C., Jung K., 2005, CadC-mediated activation of the cadBA promoter in Escherichia coli., J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 10(1):26-39

 [38] Laurent G., Calemard E., Charra B., 1988, Dialysis related amyloidosis., Kidney Int Suppl 24:S32-4

 [39] Eichler K., Buchet A., Lemke R., Kleber HP., Mandrand-Berthelot MA., 1996, Identification and characterization of the caiF gene encoding a potential transcriptional activator of carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 178(5):1248-57

 [40] Eichler K., Bourgis F., Buchet A., Kleber HP., Mandrand-Berthelot MA., 1994, Molecular characterization of the cai operon necessary for carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 13(5):775-86

 [41] Arslan Z., Stratmann T., Wurm R., Wagner R., Schnetz K., Pul U., 2013, RcsB-BglJ-mediated activation of Cascade operon does not induce the maturation of CRISPR RNAs in E. coli K12., RNA Biol 10(5)

 [42] Pul U., Wurm R., Arslan Z., Geissen R., Hofmann N., Wagner R., 2010, Identification and characterization of E. coli CRISPR-cas promoters and their silencing by H-NS., Mol Microbiol 75(6):1495-512

 [43] Westra ER., Pul U., Heidrich N., Jore MM., Lundgren M., Stratmann T., Wurm R., Raine A., Mescher M., Van Heereveld L., Mastop M., Wagner EG., Schnetz K., Van Der Oost J., Wagner R., Brouns SJ., 2010, H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO., Mol Microbiol 77(6):1380-93

 [44] Francetic O., Badaut C., Rimsky S., Pugsley AP., 2000, The ChiA (YheB) protein of Escherichia coli K-12 is an endochitinase whose gene is negatively controlled by the nucleoid-structuring protein H-NS., Mol Microbiol 35(6):1506-17

 [45] Yamanaka K., Ogura T., Niki H., Hiraga S., 1995, Characterization of the smtA gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase of Escherichia coli., FEMS Microbiol Lett 133(1-2):59-63

 [46] Ogasawara H., Yamada K., Kori A., Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., 2010, Regulation of the Escherichia coli csgD promoter: interplay between five transcription factors., Microbiology 156(Pt 8):2470-83

 [47] Germer J., Becker G., Metzner M., Hengge-Aronis R., 2001, Role of activator site position and a distal UP-element half-site for sigma factor selectivity at a CRP/H-NS-activated sigma(s)-dependent promoter in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 41(3):705-16

 [48] Brandi A., Giangrossi M., Giuliodori AM., Falconi M., 2016, An Interplay among FIS, H-NS, and Guanosine Tetraphosphate Modulates Transcription of the Escherichia coli cspA Gene under Physiological Growth Conditions., Front Mol Biosci 3:19

 [49] Yamanaka K., Inouye M., 1997, Growth-phase-dependent expression of cspD, encoding a member of the CspA family in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 179(16):5126-30

 [50] Govantes F., Orjalo AV., Gunsalus RP., 2000, Interplay between three global regulatory proteins mediates oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon., Mol Microbiol 38(5):1061-73

 [51] White-Ziegler CA., Malhowski AJ., Young S., 2007, Human body temperature (37degrees C) increases the expression of iron, carbohydrate, and amino acid utilization genes in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol 189(15):5429-40

 [52] Forns N., Juarez A., Madrid C., 2005, Osmoregulation of the HtrA (DegP) protease of Escherichia coli: an Hha-H-NS complex represses HtrA expression at low osmolarity., FEMS Microbiol Lett 251(1):75-80

 [53] Grainger DC., Goldberg MD., Lee DJ., Busby SJ., 2008, Selective repression by Fis and H-NS at the Escherichia coli dps promoter., Mol Microbiol 68(6):1366-77

 [54] Schembri MA., Olsen PB., Klemm P., 1998, Orientation-dependent enhancement by H-NS of the activity of the type 1 fimbrial phase switch promoter in Escherichia coli., Mol Gen Genet 259(3):336-44

 [55] Donato GM., Kawula TH., 1999, Phenotypic analysis of random hns mutations differentiate DNA-binding activity from properties of fimA promoter inversion modulation and bacterial motility., J Bacteriol 181(3):941-8

 [56] Donato GM., Lelivelt MJ., Kawula TH., 1997, Promoter-specific repression of fimB expression by the Escherichia coli nucleoid-associated protein H-NS., J Bacteriol 179(21):6618-25

 [57] Olsen PB., Schembri MA., Gally DL., Klemm P., 1998, Differential temperature modulation by H-NS of the fimB and fimE recombinase genes which control the orientation of the type 1 fimbrial phase switch., FEMS Microbiol Lett 162(1):17-23

 [58] Olsen PB., Klemm P., 1994, Localization of promoters in the fim gene cluster and the effect of H-NS on the transcription of fimB and fimE., FEMS Microbiol Lett 116(1):95-100

 [59] Bertin P., Terao E., Lee EH., Lejeune P., Colson C., Danchin A., Collatz E., 1994, The H-NS protein is involved in the biogenesis of flagella in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 176(17):5537-40

 [60] Soutourina O., Kolb A., Krin E., Laurent-Winter C., Rimsky S., Danchin A., Bertin P., 1999, Multiple control of flagellum biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: role of H-NS protein and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in transcription of the flhDC master operon., J Bacteriol 181(24):7500-8

 [61] Landini P., Zehnder AJ., 2002, The global regulatory hns gene negatively affects adhesion to solid surfaces by anaerobically grown Escherichia coli by modulating expression of flagellar genes and lipopolysaccharide production., J Bacteriol 184(6):1522-9

 [62] Nandal A., Huggins CC., Woodhall MR., McHugh J., Rodriguez-Quinones F., Quail MA., Guest JR., Andrews SC., 2010, Induction of the ferritin gene (ftnA) of Escherichia coli by Fe(2+)-Fur is mediated by reversal of H-NS silencing and is RyhB independent., Mol Microbiol 75(3):637-57

 [63] Ma Z., Richard H., Tucker DL., Conway T., Foster JW., 2002, Collaborative regulation of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance by two AraC-like regulators, GadX and GadW (YhiW)., J Bacteriol 184(24):7001-12

 [64] Tramonti A., Visca P., De Canio M., Falconi M., De Biase D., 2002, Functional characterization and regulation of gadX, a gene encoding an AraC/XylS-like transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli glutamic acid decarboxylase system., J Bacteriol 184(10):2603-13

 [65] Hommais F., Krin E., Laurent-Winter C., Soutourina O., Malpertuy A., Le Caer JP., Danchin A., Bertin P., 2001, Large-scale monitoring of pleiotropic regulation of gene expression by the prokaryotic nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS., Mol Microbiol 40(1):20-36

 [66] Rimsky S., Spassky A., 1990, Sequence determinants for H1 binding on Escherichia coli lac and gal promoters., Biochemistry 29(15):3765-71

 [67] Francetic O., Belin D., Badaut C., Pugsley AP., 2000, Expression of the endogenous type II secretion pathway in Escherichia coli leads to chitinase secretion., EMBO J 19(24):6697-703

 [68] Mujacic M., Baneyx F., 2006, Regulation of Escherichia coli hchA, a stress-inducible gene encoding molecular chaperone Hsp31., Mol Microbiol 60(6):1576-89

 [69] De Biase D., Tramonti A., Bossa F., Visca P., 1999, The response to stationary-phase stress conditions in Escherichia coli: role and regulation of the glutamic acid decarboxylase system., Mol Microbiol 32(6):1198-211

 [70] Shin M., Song M., Rhee JH., Hong Y., Kim YJ., Seok YJ., Ha KS., Jung SH., Choy HE., 2005, DNA looping-mediated repression by histone-like protein H-NS: specific requirement of Esigma70 as a cofactor for looping., Genes Dev 19(19):2388-98

 [71] Yoshida T., Ueguchi C., Yamada H., Mizuno T., 1993, Function of the Escherichia coli nucleoid protein, H-NS: molecular analysis of a subset of proteins whose expression is enhanced in a hns deletion mutant., Mol Gen Genet 237(1-2):113-22

 [72] Lithgow JK., Haider F., Roberts IS., Green J., 2007, Alternate SlyA and H-NS nucleoprotein complexes control hlyE expression in Escherichia coli K-12., Mol Microbiol 66(3):685-98

 [73] Westermark M., Oscarsson J., Mizunoe Y., Urbonaviciene J., Uhlin BE., 2000, Silencing and activation of ClyA cytotoxin expression in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 182(22):6347-57

 [74] Wyborn NR., Stapleton MR., Norte VA., Roberts RE., Grafton J., Green J., 2004, Regulation of Escherichia coli hemolysin E expression by H-NS and Salmonella SlyA., J Bacteriol 186(6):1620-8

 [75] Falconi M., Brandi A., La Teana A., Gualerzi CO., Pon CL., 1996, Antagonistic involvement of FIS and H-NS proteins in the transcriptional control of hns expression., Mol Microbiol 19(5):965-75

 [76] Giangrossi M., Gualerzi CO., Pon CL., 2001, Mutagenesis of the downstream region of the Escherichia coli hns promoter., Biochimie 83(2):251-9

 [77] Dersch P., Schmidt K., Bremer E., 1993, Synthesis of the Escherichia coli K-12 nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is subjected to growth-phase control and autoregulation., Mol Microbiol 8(5):875-89

 [78] Levinthal M., Lejeune P., Danchin A., 1994, The H-NS protein modulates the activation of the ilvIH operon of Escherichia coli K12 by Lrp, the leucine regulatory protein., Mol Gen Genet 242(6):736-43

 [79] Spassky A., Rimsky S., Garreau H., Buc H., 1984, H1a, an E. coli DNA-binding protein which accumulates in stationary phase, strongly compacts DNA in vitro., Nucleic Acids Res 12(13):5321-40

 [80] Chen CC., Chou MY., Huang CH., Majumder A., Wu HY., 2005, A cis-spreading nucleoprotein filament is responsible for the gene silencing activity found in the promoter relay mechanism., J Biol Chem 280(6):5101-12

 [81] Stratmann T., Pul U., Wurm R., Wagner R., Schnetz K., 2012, RcsB-BglJ activates the Escherichia coli leuO gene, encoding an H-NS antagonist and pleiotropic regulator of virulence determinants., Mol Microbiol 83(6):1109-23

 [82] Oshima T., Ito K., Kabayama H., Nakamura Y., 1995, Regulation of lrp gene expression by H-NS and Lrp proteins in Escherichia coli: dominant negative mutations in lrp., Mol Gen Genet 247(5):521-8

 [83] Leuzzi A., Di Martino ML., Campilongo R., Falconi M., Barbagallo M., Marcocci L., Pietrangeli P., Casalino M., Grossi M., Micheli G., Colonna B., Prosseda G., 2015, Multifactor Regulation of the MdtJI Polyamine Transporter in Shigella., PLoS One 10(8):e0136744

 [84] Deighan P., Free A., Dorman CJ., 2000, A role for the Escherichia coli H-NS-like protein StpA in OmpF porin expression through modulation of micF RNA stability., Mol Microbiol 38(1):126-39

 [85] Delihas N., Forst S., 2001, MicF: an antisense RNA gene involved in response of Escherichia coli to global stress factors., J Mol Biol 313(1):1-12

 [86] Dover N., Higgins CF., Carmel O., Rimon A., Pinner E., Padan E., 1996, Na+-induced transcription of nhaA, which encodes an Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli, is positively regulated by nhaR and affected by hns., J Bacteriol 178(22):6508-17

 [87] Browning DF., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2000, Suppression of FNR-dependent transcription activation at the Escherichia coli nir promoter by Fis, IHF and H-NS: modulation of transcription initiation by a complex nucleo-protein assembly., Mol Microbiol 37(5):1258-69

 [88] Browning DF., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2004, Transcription activation by remodelling of a nucleoprotein assembly: the role of NarL at the FNR-dependent Escherichia coli nir promoter., Mol Microbiol 53(1):203-15

 [89] Cendra Mdel M., Juarez A., Madrid C., Torrents E., 2013, H-NS is a novel transcriptional modulator of the ribonucleotide reductase genes in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 195(18):4255-63

 [90] Bouvier J., Gordia S., Kampmann G., Lange R., Hengge-Aronis R., Gutierrez C., 1998, Interplay between global regulators of Escherichia coli: effect of RpoS, Lrp and H-NS on transcription of the gene osmC., Mol Microbiol 28(5):971-80

 [91] Lucht JM., Dersch P., Kempf B., Bremer E., 1994, Interactions of the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS with the regulatory region of the osmotically controlled proU operon of Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem 269(9):6578-8

 [92] Rajkumari K., Gowrishankar J., 2001, In vivo expression from the RpoS-dependent P1 promoter of the osmotically regulated proU operon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: activation by rho and hns mutations and by cold stress., J Bacteriol 183(22):6543-50

 [93] Rajkumari K., Kusano S., Ishihama A., Mizuno T., Gowrishankar J., 1996, Effects of H-NS and potassium glutamate on sigmaS- and sigma70-directed transcription in vitro from osmotically regulated P1 and P2 promoters of proU in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 178(14):4176-81

 [94] Ebel W., Trempy JE., 1999, Escherichia coli RcsA, a positive activator of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide synthesis, functions to activate its own expression., J Bacteriol 181(2):577-84

 [95] Meenakshi S., Munavar MH., 2015, Suppression of capsule expression in Δlon strains of Escherichia coli by two novel rpoB mutations in concert with HNS: possible role for DNA bending at rcsA promoter., Microbiologyopen 4(5):712-29

 [96] Sledjeski D., Gottesman S., 1995, A small RNA acts as an antisilencer of the H-NS-silenced rcsA gene of Escherichia coli., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(6):2003-7

 [97] Nakagawa A., Oshima T., Mori H., 2006, Identification and characterization of a second, inducible promoter of relA in Escherichia coli., Genes Genet Syst 81(5):299-310

 [98] Tippner D., Afflerbach H., Bradaczek C., Wagner R., 1994, Evidence for a regulatory function of the histone-like Escherichia coli protein H-NS in ribosomal RNA synthesis., Mol Microbiol 11(3):589-604

 [99] Afflerbach H., Schroder O., Wagner R., 1998, Effects of the Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein H-NS on rRNA synthesis in vivo., Mol Microbiol 28(3):641-53

 [100] Gralla JD., 2005, Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA transcription: regulatory roles for ppGpp, NTPs, architectural proteins and a polymerase-binding protein., Mol Microbiol 55(4):973-7

 [101] Neusser T., Gildehaus N., Wurm R., Wagner R., 2008, Studies on the expression of 6S RNA from E. coli: involvement of regulators important for stress and growth adaptation., Biol Chem 389(3):285-97

 [102] Free A., Dorman CJ., 1997, The Escherichia coli stpA gene is transiently expressed during growth in rich medium and is induced in minimal medium and by stress conditions., J Bacteriol 179(3):909-18

 [103] Beraud M., Kolb A., Monteil V., D'Alayer J., Norel F., 2010, A proteomic analysis reveals differential regulation of the σ(S)-dependent yciGFE(katN) locus by YncC and H-NS in Salmonella and Escherichia coli K-12., Mol Cell Proteomics 9(12):2601-16

 [104] Stratmann T., Madhusudan S., Schnetz K., 2008, Regulation of the yjjQ-bglJ operon, encoding LuxR-type transcription factors, and the divergent yjjP gene by H-NS and LeuO., J Bacteriol 190(3):926-35

 [105] Wang W., Li GW., Chen C., Xie XS., Zhuang X., 2011, Chromosome organization by a nucleoid-associated protein in live bacteria., Science 333(6048):1445-9

 [106] Chib S., Mahadevan S., 2012, Involvement of the Global Regulator H-NS in the Survival of Escherichia coli in Stationary Phase., J Bacteriol 194(19):5285-93

 [107] Higashi K., Tobe T., Kanai A., Uyar E., Ishikawa S., Suzuki Y., Ogasawara N., Kurokawa K., Oshima T., 2016, H-NS Facilitates Sequence Diversification of Horizontally Transferred DNAs during Their Integration in Host Chromosomes., PLoS Genet 12(1):e1005796

 [108] 8596450;, null, null, null

 [109] Shi X., Bennett GN., 1994, Plasmids bearing hfq and the hns-like gene stpA complement hns mutants in modulating arginine decarboxylase gene expression in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 176(21):6769-75

 [110] Azam TA., Hiraga S., Ishihama A., 2000, Two types of localization of the DNA-binding proteins within the Escherichia coli nucleoid., Genes Cells 5(8):613-26

 [111] Srinivasan R., Chandraprakash D., Krishnamurthi R., Singh P., Scolari VF., Krishna S., Seshasayee AS., 2013, Genomic analysis reveals epistatic silencing of "expensive" genes in Escherichia coli K-12., Mol Biosyst 9(8):2021-33

 [112] Williams RM., Rimsky S., Buc H., 1996, Probing the structure, function, and interactions of the Escherichia coli H-NS and StpA proteins by using dominant negative derivatives., J Bacteriol 178(15):4335-43

 [113] Paytubi S., Madrid C., Forns N., Nieto JM., Balsalobre C., Uhlin BE., Juarez A., 2004, YdgT, the Hha paralogue in Escherichia coli, forms heteromeric complexes with H-NS and StpA., Mol Microbiol 54(1):251-63



RegulonDB