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PspF DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: PspF
The transcription factor PspF, for Phage shock protein F, is a bacterial enhancer-binding protein required for σ54-dependent transcription activation |CITS: [17157497][8606168]|. This regulator activates the transcription of the psp regulon, and it is negatively autoregulated and coordinately activated by transcription of the divergent operon psp |CITS: [15485810][8606168][9260970][16045605]|. The integration host factor facilitates control of the psp regulon |CITS: [9302010][9344746][15485810]|.
The psp regulon is defined like the phage shock protein system, which is involved in protecting the bacterium during infectious processes |CITS: [15485810][8606168]|. The synthesis of this regulon is induced when Escherichia coli is grown under different extracytoplasmic stress conditions and upon infection by filamentous phage (phage shock) |CITS: [1717346][16709570][9159513][16045608][16045605][1712397][9493373]|.
The activity of PspF is inhibited by PspA, which is an accessory protein that binds directly to PspF to inhibit transcription of the psp regulon |CITS: [12079332][1717346]|. PspA inhibits PspF activity by direct interaction of the AAA+ transcription activation domain of PspF |CITS: [12079332]|. Although PspA appears to regulate transcription of the psp regulon, it does not bind to DNA , but it is necessary for repressing this regulon |CITS: [10629175]|.
PspA appears to bind to the W56 loop of PspF, which is a region that contains residues 50-62.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
PspF     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: EBP
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: pspF
  Genome position: 1366935-1367912
  Length: 978 bp / 325 aa
Operon name: pspF
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) pspA, pspB, pspC, pspD, pspE, pspF, pspG
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
prophage genes and phage related functions (5)
operon (4)
inhibition / activation of enzymes (1)
cell killing (1)
Transcription related (1)
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Regulated operon(s) pspABCDE, pspF, pspG
First gene in the operon(s) pspA, pspF, pspG
Simple and complex regulons IHF,PspF
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  PspF activator pspAp Sigma54 -119.0 -160.0 pspA, pspB, pspC, pspD, pspE
1367911 1367927 [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
  PspF activator pspAp Sigma54 -99.0 -140.0 pspA, pspB, pspC, pspD, pspE
1367931 1367947 [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
  PspF repressor pspFp1 Sigma70 7.0 -27.0 pspF
1367931 1367947 [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
  PspF repressor pspFp1 Sigma70 27.0 -7.0 pspF
1367911 1367927 [BCE], [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
  PspF activator pspGp Sigma54 -87.0 -111.0 pspG
4262721 4262737 [BPP], [GEA], [ICA] [4]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [ICA] Inferred by computational analysis


 [1] Jovanovic G., Dworkin J., Model P., 1997, Autogenous control of PspF, a constitutively active enhancer-binding protein of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 179(16):5232-7

 [2] Jovanovic G., Model P., 1997, PspF and IHF bind co-operatively in the psp promoter-regulatory region of Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 25(3):473-81

 [3] Jovanovic G., Rakonjac J., Model P., 1999, In vivo and in vitro activities of the Escherichia coli sigma54 transcription activator, PspF, and its DNA-binding mutant, PspFDeltaHTH., J Mol Biol. 285(2):469-83

 [4] Lloyd LJ., Jones SE., Jovanovic G., Gyaneshwar P., Rolfe MD., Thompson A., Hinton JC., Buck M., 2004, Identification of a new member of the phage shock protein response in Escherichia coli, the phage shock protein G (PspG)., J Biol Chem. 279(53):55707-14