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NarL DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: NarL, NarL-Phosphorylated
Summary:
NarL, nitrate/nitrite response regulator NarL, is a transcriptional dual regulator of many anaerobic electron transport and fermentation-related genes in the response to the availability of high concentrations of nitrate or nitrite [48, 49] NarL activates expression of 51 operons in response to nitrate, mostly genes needed for nitrate respiration. NarL represses 41 operons involved in alternative respiratory pathways, such as fumarate reduction or fermentation of simple sugars [50]
The response regulator NarL belongs to the LuxR/UhpA family [51, 52]and is part of the two-component system NarX-NarL. There is intensive cross-regulation with the paralogous two-component system NarQ-NarP [17, 53] Each of the sensors, NarX and NarQ, is able to phosphorylate NarL and NarP, leading to the activation of both proteins. In the absence of nitrate and nitrite, NarX and NarQ stimulate the dephosphorylation of NarL-P and NarP-P [54, 55] This reaction is specific, that is, NarL-P is only desphosphorylated by NarX.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
NarL Non-Functional   Apo [BPP], [IPI] [1], [2], [3]
NarL-Phosphorylated Functional Covalent Holo [BPP], [IPI] [1], [2], [3]
Evolutionary Family: LuxR/UhpA
Sensing class: External-Two-component systems
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: narL
  Genome position: 1275179-1275829
  Length: 651 bp / 216 aa
Operon name: narXL
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
narXL
narXp


Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) adhE, aspA, caiF, ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, ccmH, citC, citD, citE, citF, citG, citX, cydC, cydD, cysG, dcuA, dcuB, dcuR, dcuS, dmsA, dmsB, dmsC, dmsD, dpiA, dpiB, fdhF, fdnG, fdnH, fdnI, focA, frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD, fumB, hcp, hcr, hyaA, hyaB, hyaC, hyaD, hyaE, hyaF, hybA, hybB, hybC, hybD, hybE, hybF, hybG, hybO, moeA, moeB, napA, napB, napC, napD, napF, napG, napH,
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Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
anaerobic respiration (63)
membrane (38)
electron donors (24)
aerobic respiration (22)
cytochromes (20)
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Regulated operon(s) abgABT-ogt, adhE, aspA-dcuA, caiF, citCDEFXG, cydDC, dcuB-fumB, dcuSR, dmsABC, dpiBA, fdhF, fdnGHI, focA-pflB, frdABCD, hcp-hcr, hyaABCDEF, hybOABCDEFG, moeAB, napFDAGHBC-ccmABCDEFGH, narGHJI, narK, nikABCDER, nirBDC-cysG, norVW, nrfABCDEFG, nuoABCEFGHIJKLMN, ompW, torCAD, ubiCA, ydeP, ydhYVWXUT, yeaR-yoaG, ynfEFGH-dmsD, ytfE
First gene in the operon(s) adhE, adhE, aspA, aspA, caiF, citC, cydD, dcuB, dcuS, dmsA, dpiB, dpiB, fdhF, fdnG, focA, focA, frdA, hcp, hyaA, hybO, moeA, napF, napF, narG, narK, nikA, nirB, norV, nrfA, nuoA, ogt, ompW, torC, ubiC, ydeP, ydhY, yeaR, ynfE, ytfE
Simple and complex regulons AppY,ArcA,Fis,IscR,NarL,NarP,YdeO
ArcA,CRP,DpiA,FNR,NarL
ArcA,CRP,FNR,IHF,NarL
ArcA,CRP,FNR,NarL
ArcA,FNR,IHF,NarL
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Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[NarL,+](12)
[NarL,-](21)
[NarL,+-](1)


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor adhEp1 Sigma38 81.0 -211.5 adhE
gatcacgtaaTCAGTACCCAGAAGTGagtaatcttg
1298325 1298340 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4], [5]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor adhEp1 Sigma38 90.0 -202.5 adhE
atcagtacccAGAAGTGAGTAATCTTgcttacgcca
1298316 1298331 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4], [5]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor adhEp2 Sigma38 -24.0 -211.5 adhE
gatcacgtaaTCAGTACCCAGAAGTGagtaatcttg
1298325 1298340 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [5]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor adhEp2 Sigma38 -15.0 -202.5 adhE
atcagtacccAGAAGTGAGTAATCTTgcttacgcca
1298316 1298331 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [5]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor aspAp Sigma70 -112.0 -216.5 aspA, dcuA
gcgcaactatTTTTGGTAGTAATCCCaaagcggtga
4368536 4368551 [a] [BPP], [GEA] [6]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor aspAp Sigma70 -76.0 -180.5 aspA, dcuA
tctatttcacAAATTAATAATTAAGGggtaaaaacc
4368500 4368515 [a] [BPP], [GEA] [6]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor aspAp Sigma70 -67.0 -171.5 aspA, dcuA
caaattaataATTAAGGGGTAAAAACcgacacttaa
4368491 4368506 [a] [BPP], [GEA] [6]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor caiFp Sigma70 nd nd caiF nd nd nd [GEA] [7]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor citCp2 nd 37.0 -147.0 citC, citD, citE, citF, citX, citG
cacgccgaaaTACTCCTtaggatgtat
652000 652006 nd [AIBSCS] [8]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator cydDp Sigma70 -126.0 -194.5 cydD, cydC
tatcgccaggCCATTACTTCGGCCGGtacaggctgc
931149 931164 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS] [9]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator cydDp Sigma70 -80.0 -148.5 cydD, cydC
ttgatgcggaACGCTACCTCGATGGTttagctgacg
931103 931118 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS] [9]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 -109.0 -128.5 dcuB, fumB
gccaatattcACTGTGAGGTATTTGCtaaagccggt
4348865 4348880 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 -45.0 -64.5 dcuB, fumB
ctgaaaacagTTCATACAAAACAGAAcgtgactgtg
4348801 4348816 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 2.0 -18.5 dcuB, fumB
caaaaatttaAATAGGATTATCGCGAgggttcacac
4348755 4348770 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 19.0 -1.5 dcuB, fumB
ttatcgcgagGGTTCACACATGTTATttactatcca
4348738 4348753 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 24.0 3.5 dcuB, fumB
gcgagggttcACACATGTTATTTACTatccaactta
4348733 4348748 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuBp Sigma70 43.0 22.5 dcuB, fumB
atttactatcCAACTTATCATAATACtgatatgtct
4348714 4348729 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuSp Sigma70 -40.0 -62.5 dcuS, dcuR
tagccaatcaTTCTTACTCCCTTTGAattacccgcc
4351717 4351732 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dcuSp Sigma70 -31.0 -53.5 dcuS, dcuR
attcttactcCCTTTGAATTACCCGCctcatcagag
4351708 4351723 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dmsAp1 Sigma70 -27.0 -163.5 dmsA, dmsB, dmsC
ataccgaacaATAATTACTCCTCACTtacacgtaat
940788 940803 [a] [BCE], [BPP] [11], [12]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dmsAp1 Sigma70 -7.0 -143.5 dmsA, dmsB, dmsC
ctcacttacaCGTAATACTACTTTCGagtgaaaatc
940808 940823 [a] [BCE], [BPP] [11], [12]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dmsAp1 Sigma70 15.0 -122.5 dmsA, dmsB, dmsC
tttcgagtgaAAATCTACCTATCTCTttgattttca
940829 940844 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [11], [12]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dpiBp nd 20.0 -232.0 dpiB, dpiA
atacatcctaAGGAGTAtttcggcgtg
652000 652006 nd [AIBSCS] [8]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor dpiBp2 nd 25.0 -39.0 dpiB, dpiA
acattttaatTACATCCgtcaaagagg
652193 652199 nd [AIBSCS] [8]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor fdhFp Sigma54 nd nd fdhF nd nd [a] [BPP], [GEA] [13]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator fdnGp Sigma70 -124.0 -153.5 fdnG, fdnH, fdnI
actggcctgtCAGGCAGTGGTGCGTTtttctaccgc
1547240 1547255 [a] [BCE], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator fdnGp Sigma70 -109.0 -138.5 fdnG, fdnH, fdnI
agtggtgcgtTTTTCTACCGCTATTGaggtaggtca
1547255 1547270 [a] [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [13], [18]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator fdnGp Sigma70 -100.0 -129.5 fdnG, fdnH, fdnI
tttttctaccGCTATTGAGGTAGGTCaatttgcgaa
1547264 1547279 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [13], [14], [15], [17]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator fdnGp Sigma70 -77.0 -106.5 fdnG, fdnH, fdnI
gtcaatttgcGAAGGCGGATTATTTTgtggcaaaca
1547287 1547302 [a] [BCE], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [13], [14], [15], [17]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -348.0 -374.5 focA, pflB
acgcaatgtaGGCTTAATGATTAGTCtgagttatat
954833 954848 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -346.0 -372.5 focA, pflB
gcaatgtaggCTTAATGATTAGTCTGagttatatta
954831 954846 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -286.0 -312.5 focA, pflB
tttacatataTTTGCATTAATAAAATaattgtaatt
954771 954786 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -270.0 -296.5 focA, pflB
ttaataaaatAATTGTAATTATAAGGttaaatatcg
954755 954770 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -253.0 -279.5 focA, pflB
attataaggtTAAATATCGGTAATTTgtatttaata
954738 954753 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -235.0 -261.5 focA, pflB
ggtaatttgtATTTAATAAATACGATcgatattgtt
954720 954735 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -226.0 -252.5 focA, pflB
tatttaataaATACGATCGATATTGTtactttattc
954711 954726 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -152.0 -178.5 focA, pflB
atgcggaaaaAATTCAACTCATTTGTtaatttttaa
954637 954652 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -101.0 -127.5 focA, pflB
ggataatcaaATATTTACTCCGTATTtgcataaaaa
954586 954601 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -37.0 -63.5 focA, pflB
gcgagatatgATCTATATCAATTTCTcatctataat
954522 954537 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp1 Sigma70 -20.0 -46.5 focA, pflB
tcaatttctcATCTATAATGCTTTGTtagtatctcg
954505 954520 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 -27.0 -374.5 focA, pflB
acgcaatgtaGGCTTAATGATTAGTCtgagttatat
954833 954848 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 -25.0 -372.5 focA, pflB
gcaatgtaggCTTAATGATTAGTCTGagttatatta
954831 954846 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 36.0 -312.5 focA, pflB
tttacatataTTTGCATTAATAAAATaattgtaatt
954771 954786 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 52.0 -296.5 focA, pflB
ttaataaaatAATTGTAATTATAAGGttaaatatcg
954755 954770 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 69.0 -279.5 focA, pflB
attataaggtTAAATATCGGTAATTTgtatttaata
954738 954753 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 87.0 -261.5 focA, pflB
ggtaatttgtATTTAATAAATACGATcgatattgtt
954720 954735 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 96.0 -252.5 focA, pflB
tatttaataaATACGATCGATATTGTtactttattc
954711 954726 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 170.0 -178.5 focA, pflB
atgcggaaaaAATTCAACTCATTTGTtaatttttaa
954637 954652 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 221.0 -127.5 focA, pflB
ggataatcaaATATTTACTCCGTATTtgcataaaaa
954586 954601 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 285.0 -63.5 focA, pflB
gcgagatatgATCTATATCAATTTCTcatctataat
954522 954537 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor focAp3 Sigma70 302.0 -46.5 focA, pflB
tcaatttctcATCTATAATGCTTTGTtagtatctcg
954505 954520 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [19]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor frdAp Sigma70 -26.0 -119.5 frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD
tcaaatttcaGACTTATCCATCAGACtatactgttg
4382430 4382445 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor frdAp Sigma70 -12.0 -105.5 frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD
tatccatcagACTATACTGTTGTACCtataaaggag
4382416 4382431 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor frdAp Sigma70 -4.0 -97.5 frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD
agactatactGTTGTACCTATAAAGGagcagtggaa
4382408 4382423 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor frdAp Sigma70 6.0 -88.5 frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD
tgttgtacctATAAAGGAGCAGTGGAatagcgttcg
4382399 4382414 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor frdAp Sigma70 14.0 -80.5 frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD
ctataaaggaGCAGTGGAATAGCGTTcgcagaccgt
4382391 4382406 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator hcpp nd -109.0 -139.5 hcp, hcr
ttttctctgcGTAATACCTCTCTGGCggtagatccc
913946 913961 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [20], [21]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator hcpp nd -100.0 -130.5 hcp, hcr
cgtaatacctCTCTGGCGGTAGATCCctgccgccaa
913937 913952 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [20], [21]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor hyaAp Sigma70 -10.0 -165.5 hyaA, hyaB, hyaC, hyaD, hyaE, hyaF
gtgcaaaagtTTCACTACGCTTTATTaacaatactt
1031966 1031981 nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [22]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor hyaAp Sigma70 7.0 -149.5 hyaA, hyaB, hyaC, hyaD, hyaE, hyaF
acgctttattAACAATACTTTCTGGCgacgtgcgcc
1031982 1031997 nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [22]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor hybOp1 Sigma70 -76.0 -177.5 hybO, hybA, hybB, hybC, hybD, hybE, hybF, hybG
aaattgatcaAACATACGTATTATCTtgctttaatt
3146431 3146446 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [22]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor hybOp1 Sigma70 -51.0 -152.5 hybO, hybA, hybB, hybC, hybD, hybE, hybF, hybG
ttgctttaatTAATTACACTAATGCTtcttcccttc
3146406 3146421 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [22]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor hybOp1 Sigma70 21.0 -81.5 hybO, hybA, hybB, hybC, hybD, hybE, hybF, hybG
aaccataataAATGTGTGGTAAATGGcgcatcgatc
3146335 3146350 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [22]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator moeAp Sigma70 -177.0 -206.5 moeA, moeB
tgcaatgactGCTTTGCCCATAGTATtcgtccatta
866563 866578 nd [AIBSCS], [GEA] [23]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator moeAp Sigma70 -109.0 -138.5 moeA, moeB
gaatttttatGAATTACTCATTCAATttttgaatat
866495 866510 nd [AIBSCS], [GEA] [23]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor napFp1 Sigma70 -49.0 -125.5 napF, napD, napA, napG, napH, napB, napC, ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, ccmH
cctgctacagGTTTTACCCCGATCGGggtatgcatc
2303615 2303630 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [24], [25], [26]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor napFp1 Sigma70 -40.0 -116.5 napF, napD, napA, napG, napH, napB, napC, ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, ccmH
ggttttacccCGATCGGGGTATGCATctttgacaca
2303606 2303621 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [24], [25], [26]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor napFp2 Sigma70 -46.0 -125.5 napF, napD, napA, napG, napH, napB, napC, ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, ccmH
cctgctacagGTTTTACCCCGATCGGggtatgcatc
2303615 2303630 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [24], [25], [26]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor napFp2 Sigma70 -37.0 -116.5 napF, napD, napA, napG, napH, napB, napC, ccmA, ccmB, ccmC, ccmD, ccmE, ccmF, ccmG, ccmH
ggttttacccCGATCGGGGTATGCATctttgacaca
2303606 2303621 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [24], [25], [26]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -208.0 -265.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
gagccattaaTATGTTACCCATGGGGaatactcctt
1279591 1279606 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [16], [27], [28]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -195.0 -252.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
gttacccatgGGGAATACTCCTTAATacccatctgc
1279604 1279619 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [16], [27], [28], [29]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -185.0 -242.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
gggaatactcCTTAATACCCATCTGCataaaaatct
1279614 1279629 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [16], [27], [28], [29]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -101.0 -158.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
ttatgtggtgGCTGTTAATTATCCTAaaggggtatc
1279698 1279713 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [15], [16], [17], [27], [28], [29]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -89.0 -146.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
tgttaattatCCTAAAGGGGTATCTTaggaatttac
1279710 1279725 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [16], [27], [28], [29]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -79.0 -136.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
cctaaaggggTATCTTAGGAATTTACtttatttttc
1279720 1279735 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [16], [27], [28]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -71.0 -128.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
ggtatcttagGAATTTACTTTATTTTtcatccccat
1279728 1279743 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [16], [27], [28]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narGp Sigma70 -57.0 -114.5 narG, narH, narJ, narI
ttactttattTTTCATCCCCATCACTcttgatcgtt
1279742 1279757 [a] [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [16], [27], [28]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -214.0 -239.5 narK
ctattggctgAAGTATACCCATACCCggaaagagtt
1277710 1277725 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -194.0 -219.5 narK
atacccggaaAGAGTTACTCCTTATTtgccgtgtgg
1277730 1277745 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS], [SM] [16], [30]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -177.0 -202.5 narK
ctccttatttGCCGTGTGGTTAGTCGctttacatcg
1277747 1277762 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -160.0 -185.5 narK
ggttagtcgcTTTACATCGGTAAGGGtagggatttt
1277764 1277779 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -154.0 -179.5 narK
tcgctttacaTCGGTAAGGGTAGGGAttttacagca
1277770 1277785 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -103.0 -128.5 narK
taatttttatGAAGTCACTGTACTCActatgggtaa
1277821 1277836 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -98.0 -123.5 narK
tttatgaagtCACTGTACTCACTATGggtaatgata
1277826 1277841 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16], [30]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -90.0 -115.5 narK
gtcactgtacTCACTATGGGTAATGAtaaatatcaa
1277834 1277849 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -80.0 -105.5 narK
tcactatgggTAATGATAAATATCAAtgatagataa
1277844 1277859 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator narKp1 Sigma70 -67.0 -92.5 narK
tgataaatatCAATGATAGATAAAGTtatcttatcg
1277857 1277872 [a] [BPP], [HIBSCS] [16]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor nikAp1 nd nd nd nikA, nikB, nikC, nikD, nikE, nikR nd nd [a] [GEA] [31]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator nirBp Sigma70 -74.0 -98.5 nirB, nirD, nirC, cysG
tacaaatcagCAATATACCCATTAAGgagtatataa
3493905 3493920 [a]
[b]
[BCE], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [12], [15], [32], [33]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator nirBp Sigma70 -65.0 -89.5 nirB, nirD, nirC, cysG
gcaatataccCATTAAGGAGTATATAaaggtgaatt
3493914 3493929 [a]
[b]
[BCE], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [12], [15], [32], [33]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor norVp Sigma54 -78.0 -115.5 norV, norW
gatagtcattTTGACTACTCATTAATgggcataatt
2832353 2832368 nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [34]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor norVp Sigma54 -69.0 -106.5 norV, norW
tttgactactCATTAATGGGCATAATtttatttata
2832362 2832377 nd [GEA], [HIBSCS] [34]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator nrfAp Sigma70 -79.0 -172.5 nrfA, nrfB, nrfC, nrfD, nrfE, nrfF, nrfG
gaggaagataCTGACTAACTCTAAAGtggtatttta
4287584 4287599 [a]
[b]
[AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [15], [17], [33], [35], [36], [37]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator nrfAp Sigma70 -70.0 -163.5 nrfA, nrfB, nrfC, nrfD, nrfE, nrfF, nrfG
actgactaacTCTAAAGTGGTATTTTacatgcactt
4287593 4287608 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [15], [17], [33], [35], [36], [37]
  NarL-Phosphorylated dual nrfAp Sigma70 -50.0 -143.5 nrfA, nrfB, nrfC, nrfD, nrfE, nrfF, nrfG
tattttacatGCACTTACAATTGATTaaagacaaca
4287613 4287628 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [15], [17], [33], [35], [37]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor nrfAp Sigma70 -22.0 -115.5 nrfA, nrfB, nrfC, nrfD, nrfE, nrfF, nrfG
agacaacattCACAGTGTGGTTATTTgttacacata
4287641 4287656 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [15], [17], [33], [35], [37]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator nuoAp2 Sigma70 -122.0 -211.5 nuoA, nuoB, nuoC, nuoE, nuoF, nuoG, nuoH, nuoI, nuoJ, nuoK, nuoL, nuoM, nuoN
gaaagggcatTAAATGCTAATGGTGTtgatattatg
2405276 2405291 [a] [GEA], [HIBSCS] [38]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ogtp nd -83.0 -130.5 ogt
gacgcgaaacTGGGTACTTACTATTCgttagtcttg
1400359 1400374 [a] [BPP] [39]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ogtp nd -74.0 -121.5 ogt
ctgggtacttACTATTCGTTAGTCTTgccctatcca
1400350 1400365 [a] [BPP] [39]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ogtp nd -50.0 -97.5 ogt
ttgccctatcCACTTATCTTTTTGGTggtatggctg
1400326 1400341 [a] [BPP] [39]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ogtp nd -41.0 -88.5 ogt
ccacttatctTTTTGGTGGTATGGCTgctgatgttg
1400317 1400332 [a] [BPP] [39]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ompWp nd -18.5 -47.5 ompW
gatcatttgtTACTCCAATGTAGGTAtattcgtcac
1313965 1313980 nd [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [12], [37], [40]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor torCp Sigma70 nd nd torC, torA, torD nd nd nd [IMP] [41]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ubiCp Sigma70 nd nd ubiC, ubiA nd nd nd [GEA] [42]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ydePp Sigma70 nd nd ydeP nd nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [43]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ydhYp Sigma38 -42.0 -206.5 ydhY, ydhV, ydhW, ydhX, ydhU, ydhT
gtaattttaaTTGATAACGATCAATGttaagggctc
1754676 1754691 [a]
[b]
[GEA], [HIBSCS] [44]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ydhYp Sigma38 -16.0 -180.5 ydhY, ydhV, ydhW, ydhX, ydhU, ydhT
ttaagggctcAGAATAATCACATTATtttttctcct
1754650 1754665 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [44]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ydhYp Sigma38 6.0 -159.5 ydhY, ydhV, ydhW, ydhX, ydhU, ydhT
attattttttCTCCTAACCATAAAGGattagtttat
1754629 1754644 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [44]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ydhYp Sigma38 15.0 -150.5 ydhY, ydhV, ydhW, ydhX, ydhU, ydhT
tctcctaaccATAAAGGATTAGTTTAtcggcgttaa
1754620 1754635 [a]
[b]
[BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [44]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator yeaRp Sigma70 -48.0 -93.5 yeaR, yoaG
atggtgctaaAAAGTAACCAATAAATggtatttaaa
1880034 1880049 [a] [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [39], [45]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator yeaRp Sigma70 -39.0 -84.5 yeaR, yoaG
aaaagtaaccAATAAATGGTATTTAAaatgcaaatt
1880025 1880040 [a] [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [39], [45]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ynfEp Sigma70 -23.0 -89.5 ynfE, ynfF, ynfG, ynfH, dmsD
tggattaataATTCTTAACCCAAAATgggtagactc
1657972 1657987 [a] [AIBSCS], [BPP] [46]
  NarL-Phosphorylated repressor ynfEp Sigma70 -14.0 -80.5 ynfE, ynfF, ynfG, ynfH, dmsD
aattcttaacCCAAAATGGGTAGACTccctctattg
1657981 1657996 [a] [AIBSCS], [BPP] [46]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ytfEp nd -50.0 -75.5 ytfE
gttaaataagCCTCTGCTACGTAAGGgttatagctt
4432051 4432066 nd [AIBSCS] [47]
  NarL-Phosphorylated activator ytfEp nd -41.0 -66.5 ytfE
gcctctgctaCGTAAGGGTTATAGCTtttgccttaa
4432042 4432057 nd [AIBSCS] [47]


Growth Condition    

 [a] Nitrate treatment

 [b] Nitrite treatment



Alignment and PSSM for NarL TFBSs    

Aligned TFBS of NarL   
  Sequence
 

Position weight matrix (PWM).   
A	26	4	60	30	1	12	30	7	29	34	14	7	15	20	12	23	42
C	16	1	2	32	32	28	30	13	11	8	18	5	10	3	15	11	2
G	7	3	0	2	2	13	0	7	1	1	16	23	23	20	24	7	6
T	18	59	5	3	32	14	7	40	26	24	19	32	19	24	16	26	17

PWM logo   


 


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
TF-target gene evolutionary conservation
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


Evidence    

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [IPI] Inferred from physical interaction

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [AIBSCS] Automated inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [SM] Site mutation

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype



Reference(s)    

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 [2] Baikalov I., Schroder I., Kaczor-Grzeskowiak M., Grzeskowiak K., Gunsalus RP., Dickerson RE., 1996, Structure of the Escherichia coli response regulator NarL., Biochemistry. 35(34):11053-61

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 [33] Wang H., Gunsalus RP., 2000, The nrfA and nirB nitrite reductase operons in Escherichia coli are expressed differently in response to nitrate than to nitrite., J Bacteriol. 182(20):5813-22

 [34] da Costa PN., Teixeira M., Saraiva LM., 2003, Regulation of the flavorubredoxin nitric oxide reductase gene in Escherichia coli: nitrate repression, nitrite induction, and possible post-transcription control., FEMS Microbiol Lett. 218(2):385-93

 [35] Browning DF., Beatty CM., Wolfe AJ., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2002, Independent regulation of the divergent Escherichia coli nrfA and acsP1 promoters by a nucleoprotein assembly at a shared regulatory region., Mol Microbiol. 43(3):687-701

 [36] Browning DF., Grainger DC., Beatty CM., Wolfe AJ., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2005, Integration of three signals at the Escherichia coli nrf promoter: a role for Fis protein in catabolite repression., Mol Microbiol. 57(2):496-510

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 [38] Bongaerts J., Zoske S., Weidner U., Unden G., 1995, Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators., Mol Microbiol. 16(3):521-34

 [39] Squire DJ., Xu M., Cole JA., Busby SJ., Browning DF., 2009, Competition between NarL-dependent activation and Fis-dependent repression controls expression from the Escherichia coli yeaR and ogt promoters., Biochem J. 420(2):249-57

 [40] Xiao M., Lai Y., Sun J., Chen G., Yan A., 2016, Transcriptional Regulation of the Outer Membrane Porin Gene ompW Reveals its Physiological Role during the Transition from the Aerobic to the Anaerobic Lifestyle of Escherichia coli., Front Microbiol. 7:799

 [41] Iuchi S., Lin EC., 1987, The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 84(11):3901-5

 [42] Kwon O., Druce-Hoffman M., Meganathan R., 2005, Regulation of the Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) Biosynthetic Genes ubiCA in Escherichia coli., Curr Microbiol. 50(4):180-9

 [43] Yoshida M., Ishihama A., Yamamoto K., 2015, Cross talk in promoter recognition between six NarL-family response regulators of Escherichia coli two-component system., Genes Cells. 20(7):601-12

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 [45] Lin HY., Bledsoe PJ., Stewart V., 2007, Activation of yeaR-yoaG Operon Transcription by Nitrate-responsive Regulator NarL is Independent of Oxygen-responsive Regulator Fnr in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 189(21):7539-48

 [46] Xu M., Busby SJ., Browning DF., 2009, Activation and repression at the Escherichia coli ynfEFGHI operon promoter., J Bacteriol. 191(9):3172-6

 [47] Rodionov DA., Dubchak IL., Arkin AP., Alm EJ., Gelfand MS., 2005, Dissimilatory metabolism of nitrogen oxides in bacteria: comparative reconstruction of transcriptional networks., PLoS Comput Biol. 1(5):e55

 [48] Unden G., Bongaerts J., 1997, Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors., Biochim Biophys Acta. 1320(3):217-34

 [49] Stewart V., 1994, Dual interacting two-component regulatory systems mediate nitrate- and nitrite-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli., Res Microbiol. 145(5-6):450-4

 [50] Constantinidou C., Hobman JL., Griffiths L., Patel MD., Penn CW., Cole JA., Overton TW., 2006, A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth., J Biol Chem. 281(8):4802-15

 [51] Gross R., Arico B., Rappuoli R., 1989, Families of bacterial signal-transducing proteins., Mol Microbiol. 3(11):1661-7

 [52] Henikoff S., Wallace JC., Brown JP., 1990, Finding protein similarities with nucleotide sequence databases., Methods Enzymol. 183:111-32

 [53] Stewart V., 2003, Biochemical Society Special Lecture. Nitrate- and nitrite-responsive sensors NarX and NarQ of proteobacteria., Biochem Soc Trans. 31(Pt 1):1-10

 [54] Schroder I., Wolin CD., Cavicchioli R., Gunsalus RP., 1994, Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the NarQ, NarX, and NarL proteins of the nitrate-dependent two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 176(16):4985-92

 [55] Walker MS., DeMoss JA., 1993, Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation catalyzed in vitro by purified components of the nitrate sensing system, NarX and NarL., J Biol Chem. 268(12):8391-3

 [56] Williams SB., Stewart V., 1997, Discrimination between structurally related ligands nitrate and nitrite controls autokinase activity of the NarX transmembrane signal transducer of Escherichia coli K-12., Mol Microbiol. 26(5):911-25

 [57] Williams SB., Stewart V., 1997, Nitrate- and nitrite-sensing protein NarX of Escherichia coli K-12: mutational analysis of the amino-terminal tail and first transmembrane segment., J Bacteriol. 179(3):721-9

 [58] Lee AI., Delgado A., Gunsalus RP., 1999, Signal-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane-bound NarX two-component sensor-transmitter protein of Escherichia coli: nitrate elicits a superior anion ligand response compared to nitrite., J Bacteriol. 181(17):5309-16

 [59] Moreno-Vivian C., Cabello P., Martinez-Luque M., Blasco R., Castillo F., 1999, Prokaryotic nitrate reduction: molecular properties and functional distinction among bacterial nitrate reductases., J Bacteriol. 181(21):6573-84

 [60] Maris AE., Sawaya MR., Kaczor-Grzeskowiak M., Jarvis MR., Bearson SM., Kopka ML., Schroder I., Gunsalus RP., Dickerson RE., 2002, Dimerization allows DNA target site recognition by the NarL response regulator., Nat Struct Biol. 9(10):771-8

 [61] Maris AE., Kaczor-Grzeskowiak M., Ma Z., Kopka ML., Gunsalus RP., Dickerson RE., 2005, Primary and secondary modes of DNA recognition by the NarL two-component response regulator., Biochemistry. 44(44):14538-52

 [62] Katsir G., Jarvis M., Phillips M., Ma Z., Gunsalus RP., 2015, The Escherichia coli NarL receiver domain regulates transcription through promoter specific functions., BMC Microbiol. 15:174

 [63] Walker MS., DeMoss JA., 1994, NarL-phosphate must bind to multiple upstream sites to activate transcription from the narG promoter of Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 14(4):633-41

 [64] Eldridge AM., Kang HS., Johnson E., Gunsalus R., Dahlquist FW., 2002, Effect of phosphorylation on the interdomain interaction of the response regulator, NarL., Biochemistry. 41(51):15173-80

 [65] Zhang JH., Xiao G., Gunsalus RP., Hubbell WL., 2003, Phosphorylation triggers domain separation in the DNA binding response regulator NarL., Biochemistry. 42(9):2552-9

 [66] Lin AV., Stewart V., 2010, Functional roles for the GerE-family carboxyl-terminal domains of nitrate response regulators NarL and NarP of Escherichia coli K-12., Microbiology. 156(Pt 10):2933-43

 [67] Browning DF., Lee DJ., Wolfe AJ., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2006, The Escherichia coli K-12 NarL and NarP proteins insulate the nrf promoter from the effects of integration host factor., J Bacteriol. 188(21):7449-56

 [68] Wu H., Tyson KL., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 1998, Regulation of transcription initiation at the Escherichia coli nir operon promoter: a new mechanism to account for co-dependence on two transcription factors., Mol Microbiol. 27(2):493-505

 [69] Browning DF., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2000, Suppression of FNR-dependent transcription activation at the Escherichia coli nir promoter by Fis, IHF and H-NS: modulation of transcription initiation by a complex nucleo-protein assembly., Mol Microbiol. 37(5):1258-69

 [70] Stewart V., Bledsoe PJ., 2005, Fnr-, NarP- and NarL-dependent regulation of transcription initiation from the Haemophilus influenzae Rd napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) promoter in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 187(20):6928-35



RegulonDB