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CusR DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Synonyms: CusR-phosphorylated, CusR
CusR, "Cu-sensing regulator", regulates genes related to the copper and silver efflux systems [3, 7]under anaerobic growth and under extreme copper stress in aerobic growth [8] CusR belongs to the two-component system CusS/CusR, which responds to increases in the copper concentration. Both cusR, encoding the response regulator, and cusS, encoding the sensor kinase, are organized in an operon that is located next to and in the opposite direction to an operon whose expression is activated by CusR [3] The sensor proteins YedW, UhpB, and YedV, which also belong to two-component systems, can activate CusR via signal cross talk [1, 2] This protein binds to the CusR box, which is a palindromic sequence also conserved in other organisms; the sequence is located in the regulatory regions of genes involved in copper-responsive systems and is regulated by proteins homologous to CusR [3] In the whole genome of Escherichia coli, only one copper box has been identified [2] CusR is not an essential protein [9]. Reviews: [10, 11]. Read more >

Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
CusR Non-Functional   Apo [BPP], [GEA], [IDA], [IPI] [1], [2]
CusR-phosphorylated Functional Covalent Holo [BPP], [GEA], [IDA], [IPI] [1], [2]
Evolutionary Family: OmpR
Sensing class: External-Two-component systems
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: cusR
  Genome position: 594760-595443
  Length: 684 bp / 227 aa
Operon name: cusRS
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) cusA, cusB, cusC, cusF, cusR, cusS, cyoA, cyoB, cyoC, cyoD, cyoE, hiuH
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
membrane (7)
aerobic respiration (5)
electron acceptors (4)
Oxidoreduction-driven Active Transporters (3)
Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters) (1)
Read more >
Regulated operon(s) cusCFBA, cusRS, cyoABCDE, hiuH
First gene in the operon(s) cusC, cusR, cyoA, hiuH
Simple and complex regulons ArcA,CRP,Cra,CusR,FNR,Fis,Fur,GadE,HprR,PdhR
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  CusR-phosphorylated activator cusCp Sigma70 -53.5 -80.5 cusC, cusF, cusB, cusA
595512 595528 [GEA], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP] [2], [3], [4], [5]
  CusR-phosphorylated activator cusRp Sigma70 -57.5 -76.5 cusR, cusS
595512 595528 [GEA], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP] [2], [3], [5]
  CusR-phosphorylated activator cyoAp Sigma70 69.5 26.5 cyoA, cyoB, cyoC, cyoD, cyoE
451577 451593 [APIORCISFBSCS] [6]
  CusR-phosphorylated activator hiuHp Sigma70 38.5 -78.5 hiuH
2038870 2038886 [GEA], [AIBSCS], [BPP] [4], [6]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [1] Yamamoto K., Hirao K., Oshima T., Aiba H., Utsumi R., Ishihama A., 2005, Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem 280(2):1448-56

 [2] Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., 2005, Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to external copper., Mol Microbiol 56(1):215-27

 [3] Munson GP., Lam DL., Outten FW., O'Halloran TV., 2000, Identification of a copper-responsive two-component system on the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol 182(20):5864-71

 [4] Urano H., Yoshida M., Ogawa A., Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., Ogasawara H., 2017, Cross-regulation between two common ancestral response regulators, HprR and CusR, in Escherichia coli., Microbiology 163(2):243-252

 [5] Xu Z., Wang P., Wang H., Yu ZH., Au-Yeung HY., Hirayama T., Sun H., Yan A., 2019, Zinc excess increases cellular demand for iron and decreases tolerance to copper in Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem 294(45):16978-16991

 [6] Urano H., Umezawa Y., Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., Ogasawara H., 2015, Cooperative regulation of the common target genes between H2O2-sensing YedVW and Cu2+-sensing CusSR in Escherichia coli., Microbiology 161(Pt 4):729-38

 [7] Franke S., Grass G., Nies DH., 2001, The product of the ybdE gene of the Escherichia coli chromosome is involved in detoxification of silver ions., Microbiology 147(Pt 4):965-72

 [8] Outten FW, Huffman DL, Hale JA, O'Halloran TV, 2001, The independent cue and cus systems confer copper tolerance during aerobic and anaerobic growth in Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem, 276(33):30670 10.1074/jbc.M104122200

 [9] Miyake Y., Yamamoto K., 2020, Epistatic Effect of Regulators to the Adaptive Growth of Escherichia coli., Sci Rep 10(1):3661

 [10] Rademacher C, Masepohl B, 2012, Copper-responsive gene regulation in bacteria., Microbiology (Reading), 158(Pt 10):2451 10.1099/mic.0.058487-0

 [11] Giachino A, Waldron KJ, 2020, Copper tolerance in bacteria requires the activation of multiple accessory pathways., Mol Microbiol, 114(3):377 10.1111/mmi.14522