RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.7:Regulon Page

GlaR DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: GlaR-glutarate, GlaR
The transcription factor CsiR, for "Carbon starvation induced Regulator," was initially identified as a repressor that controls the transcription of genes involved in the degradation and transport of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) for utilization as a source of nitrogen [4, 5, 7]. However, CsiR does not appear to respond directly to the presence of GABA [5], and later reports suggested that it does not affect expression of gabDTP [4, 8]. CsiR represses transcription from the csiD promoter during stationary phase [4]. Currently, no DNA-binding sites for this regulator have been reported in the literature [4]. csiR expression is induced at stationary phase, but is not autoregulated and not dependent on σS [4]. A csiR mutant (gabC1) has the ability to utilize γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) as the sole source of nitrogen [5, 9, 10, 11]. In an experiment using directed cell evolution of a ΔpanD mutant (containing a damaged CoA biosynthesis pathway), a pathway for β-alanine biosynthesis via uracil degradation emerged.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
GlaR Functional   Apo [APPHINH], [IMP] [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]
GlaR-glutarate Non-Functional   Holo nd nd
Evolutionary Family: GntR
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: glaR
  Genome position: 2795674-2796336
  Length: 663 bp / 220 aa
Operon name: glaR
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) gabD, gabP, gabT, glaH, lhgD
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
aminobutyrate catabolism (2)
putrescine catabolism (2)
amino acids (2)
carbon compounds (1)
Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters) (1)
Regulated operon(s) glaH-lhgD-gabDTP
First gene in the operon(s) glaH
Simple and complex regulons CRP,GlaR,H-NS,Lrp,ppGpp
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  GlaR repressor csiDp Sigma38 -32.0 -90.0 glaH, lhgD, gabD, gabT, gabP
2788889 2788902 [BPP], [GEA], [IEP] [2], [4]
  GlaR repressor csiDp Sigma38 -13.0 -71.0 glaH, lhgD, gabD, gabT, gabP
2788908 2788921 [BPP], [GEA], [IEP] [2], [4]

High-throughput Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs)

  Functional conformation Function Object name Object type Distance to first Gene Sequence LeftPos RightPos Growth Condition Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  GlaR activator nd nd nd 3877705 3877720 nd , , [1]
  GlaR activator nd nd nd 3225803 3225818 nd , , [1]
  GlaR activator nd nd nd 2041850 2041865 nd , , [1]
  GlaR activator yadN nd nd 157223 157238 nd , , [1]
  GlaR activator nd nd nd 4391540 4391555 nd , , [1]
  GlaR activator smg nd nd 3432340 3432355 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 2465606 2465621 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor chaBC nd nd 1272181 1272196 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 2748613 2748628 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor ydcK nd nd 1500432 1500447 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 3169200 3169215 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 1434613 1434628 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 1747133 1747148 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor yqhC nd nd 3154845 3154860 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 1256356 1256371 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor yjfY nd nd 4424691 4424706 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 4101601 4101616 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 1217378 1217393 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor yccU nd nd 1027840 1027855 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor chaA nd nd 1272181 1272196 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 491053 491068 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 2782942 2782957 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 4391540 4391555 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 1631374 1631389 nd , , [1]
  GlaR repressor nd nd nd 4473760 4473775 nd , , [1]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [APPHINH] Assay of protein purified to homogeneity from its native host

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [IEP] Inferred from expression pattern

 [AIBSPD] Automated inference based on sequence pattern discovery

 [CE] ChIP-seq evidence

 [RE] RNA-seq evidence

 [MCIBSPD] Manually curated inference based on sequence pattern discovery


 [1] Aquino P., Honda B., Jaini S., Lyubetskaya A., Hosur K., Chiu JG., Ekladious I., Hu D., Jin L., Sayeg MK., Stettner AI., Wang J., Wong BG., Wong WS., Alexander SL., Ba C., Bensussen SI., Bernstein DB., Braff D., Cha S., Cheng DI., Cho JH., Chou K., Chuang J., Gastler DE., Grasso DJ., Greifenberger JS., Guo C., Hawes AK., Israni DV., Jain SR., Kim J., Lei J., Li H., Li D., Li Q., Mancuso CP., Mao N., Masud SF., Meisel CL., Mi J., Nykyforchyn CS., Park M., Peterson HM., Ramirez AK., Reynolds DS., Rim NG., Saffie JC., Su H., Su WR., Su Y., Sun M., Thommes MM., Tu T., Varongchayakul N., Wagner TE., Weinberg BH., Yang R., Yaroslavsky A., Yoon C., Zhao Y., Zollinger AJ., Stringer AM., Foster JW., Wade J., Raman S., Broude N., Wong WW., Galagan JE., 2017, Coordinated regulation of acid resistance in Escherichia coli., BMC Syst Biol 11(1):1

 [2] Knorr S., Sinn M., Galetskiy D., Williams RM., Wang C., Muller N., Mayans O., Schleheck D., Hartig JS., 2018, Widespread bacterial lysine degradation proceeding via glutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate., Nat Commun 9(1):5071

 [3] Metzer E., Halpern YS., 1990, In vivo cloning and characterization of the gabCTDP gene cluster of Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol 172(6):3250-6

 [4] Metzner M., Germer J., Hengge R., 2004, Multiple stress signal integration in the regulation of the complex sigma S-dependent csiD-ygaF-gabDTP operon in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 51(3):799-811

 [5] Schneider BL., Ruback S., Kiupakis AK., Kasbarian H., Pybus C., Reitzer L., 2002, The Escherichia coli gabDTPC operon: specific gamma-aminobutyrate catabolism and nonspecific induction., J Bacteriol 184(24):6976-86

 [6] Zaboura M., Halpern YS., 1978, Regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid degradation in Escherichia coli by nitrogen metabolism enzymes., J Bacteriol 133(2):447-51

 [7] Metzer E, Levitz R, Halpern YS, 1979, Isolation and properties of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants impaired in the utilization of gamma-aminobutyrate., J Bacteriol, 1979 Mar

 [8] Aquino P, Honda B, Jaini S, Lyubetskaya A, Hosur K, Chiu JG, Ekladious I, Hu D, Jin L, Sayeg MK, Stettner AI, Wang J, Wong BG, Wong WS, Alexander SL, Ba C, Bensussen SI, Bernstein DB, Braff D, Cha S, Cheng DI, Cho JH, Chou K, Chuang J, Gastler DE, Grasso DJ, Greifenberger JS, Guo C, Hawes AK, Israni DV, Jain SR, Kim J, Lei J, Li H, Li D, Li Q, Mancuso CP, Mao N, Masud SF, Meisel CL, Mi J, Nykyforchyn CS, Park M, Peterson HM, Ramirez AK, Reynolds DS, Rim NG, Saffie JC, Su H, Su WR, Su Y, Sun M, Thommes MM, Tu T, Varongchayakul N, Wagner TE, Weinberg BH, Yang R, Yaroslavsky A, Yoon C, Zhao Y, Zollinger AJ, Stringer AM, Foster JW, Wade J, Raman S, Broude N, Wong WW, Galagan JE, 2017, Coordinated regulation of acid resistance in Escherichia coli., BMC Syst Biol, 2017 Jan 6

 [9] Dover S, Halpern YS, 1972, Utilization of -aminobutyric acid as the sole carbon and nitrogen source by Escherichia coli K-12 mutants., J Bacteriol, 1972 Feb

 [10] Dover S, Halpern YS, 1972, Control of the pathway of -aminobutyrate breakdown in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol, 1972 Apr

 [11] Dover S, Halpern YS, 1974, Genetic analysis of the gamma-aminobutyrate utilization pathway in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol, 1974 Feb

 [12] Pontrelli S., Fricke RCB., Teoh ST., Lavina WA., Putri SP., Fitz-Gibbon S., Chung M., Pellegrini M., Fukusaki E., Liao JC., 2018, Metabolic repair through emergence of new pathways in Escherichia coli., Nat Chem Biol 14(11):1005-1009