RegulonDB RegulonDB 9.4:Regulon Page

TrpR DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: TrpR, TrpR-Tryptophan
TrpR, tryptophan ARRAY(0x2877848) transcriptional repressor, negatively regulates expression of the trp regulon in response to intracellular levels of tryptophan [14] The TrpR regulon is involved in tryptophan biosynthesis, transport, and regulation. This regulon partially overlaps with the TyrR regulon, since expression of several genes is regulated by TrpR and TyrR, the transcriptional regulator of the TyrR regulon [11, 12, 13]
TrpR represses transcription by interfering with the ability of RNA polymerase to interact with the promoter [15] The aporepressor is activated as a DNA-binding protein by noncooperative binding of two L-tryptophan molecules to the homodimer [1, 15, 16] The consensus sequence for TrpR is described as two symmetrically arranged half-sites with the sequence GNACT separated by a spacer of 8 bp [9]
X-ray crystallography of the aporepressor [17] the holorepressor [18] and repressor bound to the operator oligonucleotide [19]as well as NMR studies of the repressor and aporepressor in solution [3]and bound to an operator oligonucleotide [2]reveal that the small 25-kDa protein belongs to the helix-turn-helix (HTH) family.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
TrpR Non-Functional   Apo [AIFS], [BPP], [IPI] [1], [2], [3]
TrpR-Tryptophan Functional Allosteric Holo [AIFS], [BPP], [IPI] [1], [2], [3]
Evolutionary Family: TrpR
Sensing class: Sensing external and internal signals
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: trpR
  Genome position: 4632760-4633086
  Length: 327 bp / 108 aa
Operon name: trpR
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) aroH, aroL, aroM, mtr, trpA, trpB, trpC, trpD, trpE, trpL, trpR, yaiA
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
tryptophan (9)
chorismate (1)
Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters) (1)
membrane (1)
Transcription related (1)
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Regulated operon(s) aroH, aroL-yaiA-aroM, mtr, trpLEDCBA, trpR
First gene in the operon(s) aroH, aroL, mtr, trpL, trpL, trpR
Simple and complex regulons HU,IHF,TrpR,TyrR
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor aroHp1 Sigma70 -37.5 -154.5 aroH
1788272 1788289 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor aroHp1 Sigma70 -29.5 -146.5 aroH
1788280 1788297 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor aroLp Sigma70 48.5 -77.5 aroL, yaiA, aroM
406319 406336 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [6], [9], [10], [11]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor aroLp Sigma70 56.5 -69.5 aroL, yaiA, aroM
406327 406344 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [6], [9], [10], [11]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor mtrp2 Sigma70 -19.5 -62.5 mtr
3305871 3305888 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [12], [13]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor mtrp2 Sigma70 -11.5 -54.5 mtr
3305863 3305880 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [6], [12], [13]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor trpLp Sigma70 -19.5 -45.5 trpL, trpE, trpD, trpC, trpB, trpA
1323119 1323136 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor trpLp Sigma70 -11.5 -37.5 trpL, trpE, trpD, trpC, trpB, trpA
1323111 1323128 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor trpLp Sigma70 -3.5 -29.5 trpL, trpE, trpD, trpC, trpB, trpA
1323103 1323120 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]
  TrpR-Tryptophan repressor trpRp Sigma70 -0.5 -56.5 trpR
4632695 4632712 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [4], [6], [7], [8], [9], [14]

Alignment and PSSM for TrpR TFBSs    

Position weight matrix (PWM).   
A	0	0	4	0	0	1	4	4	0	0	5	0	0	5	0	4
C	6	1	2	0	1	0	1	0	6	0	0	0	0	0	6	0
G	0	0	0	4	0	1	0	1	0	1	1	6	0	0	0	2
T	0	5	0	2	5	4	1	1	0	5	0	0	6	1	0	0

PWM logo   


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
TF-target gene evolutionary conservation
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [AIFS] Automated inference of function from sequence

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [IPI] Inferred from physical interaction

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [SM] Site mutation


 [1] Lane AN., 1986, The interaction of the trp repressor from Escherichia coli with L-tryptophan and indole propanoic acid., Eur J Biochem. 157(2):405-13

 [2] Ramesh V., Frederick RO., Syed SE., Gibson CF., Yang JC., Roberts GC., 1994, The interactions of Escherichia coli trp repressor with tryptophan and with an operator oligonucleotide. NMR studies using selectively 15N-labelled protein., Eur J Biochem. 225(2):601-8

 [3] Zhao D., Arrowsmith CH., Jia X., Jardetzky O., 1993, Refined solution structures of the Escherichia coli trp holo- and aporepressor., J Mol Biol. 229(3):735-46

 [4] Bass S., Sugiono P., Arvidson DN., Gunsalus RP., Youderian P., 1987, DNA specificity determinants of Escherichia coli tryptophan repressor binding., Genes Dev. 1(6):565-72

 [5] Grove CL., Gunsalus RP., 1987, Regulation of the aroH operon of Escherichia coli by the tryptophan repressor., J Bacteriol. 169(5):2158-64

 [6] Jeeves M., Evans PD., Parslow RA., Jaseja M., Hyde EI., 1999, Studies of the Escherichia coli Trp repressor binding to its five operators and to variant operator sequences., Eur J Biochem. 265(3):919-28

 [7] Klig LS., Carey J., Yanofsky C., 1988, trp repressor interactions with the trp aroH and trpR operators. Comparison of repressor binding in vitro and repression in vivo., J Mol Biol. 202(4):769-77

 [8] Kumamoto AA., Miller WG., Gunsalus RP., 1987, Escherichia coli tryptophan repressor binds multiple sites within the aroH and trp operators., Genes Dev. 1(6):556-64

 [9] Yang J., Gunasekera A., Lavoie TA., Jin L., Lewis DE., Carey J., 1996, In vivo and in vitro studies of TrpR-DNA interactions., J Mol Biol. 258(1):37-52

 [10] Heatwole VM., Somerville RL., 1992, Synergism between the Trp repressor and Tyr repressor in repression of the aroL promoter of Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 174(1):331-5

 [11] Lawley B., Pittard AJ., 1994, Regulation of aroL expression by TyrR protein and Trp repressor in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 176(22):6921-30

 [12] Heatwole VM., Somerville RL., 1991, The tryptophan-specific permease gene, mtr, is differentially regulated by the tryptophan and tyrosine repressors in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 173(11):3601-4

 [13] Sarsero JP., Wookey PJ., Pittard AJ., 1991, Regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli K-12 mtr gene by TyrR protein and Trp repressor., J Bacteriol. 173(13):4133-43

 [14] Gunsalus RP., Yanofsky C., 1980, Nucleotide sequence and expression of Escherichia coli trpR, the structural gene for the trp aporepressor., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 77(12):7117-21

 [15] Squires CL., Lee FD., Yanofsky C., 1975, Interaction of the trp repressor and RNA polymerase with the trp operon., J Mol Biol. 92(1):93-111

 [16] Marmorstein RQ., Joachimiak A., Sprinzl M., Sigler PB., 1987, The structural basis for the interaction between L-tryptophan and the Escherichia coli trp aporepressor., J Biol Chem. 262(10):4922-7

 [17] Zhang RG., Joachimiak A., Lawson CL., Schevitz RW., Otwinowski Z., Sigler PB., 1987, The crystal structure of trp aporepressor at 1.8 A shows how binding tryptophan enhances DNA affinity., Nature. 327(6123):591-7

 [18] Schevitz RW., Otwinowski Z., Joachimiak A., Lawson CL., Sigler PB., 1985, The three-dimensional structure of trp repressor., Nature. 317(6040):782-6

 [19] Otwinowski Z., Schevitz RW., Zhang RG., Lawson CL., Joachimiak A., Marmorstein RQ., Luisi BF., Sigler PB., 1988, Crystal structure of trp repressor/operator complex at atomic resolution., Nature. 335(6188):321-9