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CspA DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Synonyms: CspA
The Cold shock protein A, CspA, is a major cold shock protein and was shown to be detected only during early-log-phase growth at 37°C and during log phase after a shift from 37°C to 10°C |CITS: [3553157][2404279]|. However, studies have shown that although the expression of cspA is reduced during stationary phase, cspA mRNA and CspA are detectable during all growth phases |CITS: [22093878]|. CspA acts as a positive transcription factor of at least two cold shock genes: hns |CITS: [7748932][1961761][11278076]| and gyrA |CITS: [1325964]|. cspA has been shown to negatively regulate its own expression as the result of attenuation of transcription |CITS: [9371456]|. A model of how CspA might affect the transcription of hns has been proposed |CITS: [17088256]|. CspE inhibits the expression of cspA in vitro by increasing pause recognition for RNA polymerase at the cspA cold box |CITS: [10200963]|. cspA expression was increased in a uvrY mutant strain and reduced when uvrY was overexpressed |CITS: [26673755]|.
CspA belongs to the cold shock family of proteins and was shown to be homologous to eukaryotic Y-box transcription factors |CITS: [9484881][3174636]|. The transcription factors of this family recognize a CCAAT sequence in the regulatory region of the genes regulated |CITS: [11278076][7748932]|.
The crystal structure of CspA has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.0 Å |CITS: [8197194]|; also, the structure of CspA has been determined by NMR spectroscopy |CITS: [7515185][9692981]|.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
CspA     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: Cold
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: cspA
  Genome position: 3720049-3720261
  Length: 213 bp / 70 aa
Operon name: cspA
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) gyrA, hns
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
Transcription related (2)
DNA replication (1)
nucleoproteins, basic proteins (1)
activator (1)
repressor (1)
Regulated operon(s) gyrA, hns
First gene in the operon(s) gyrA, hns
Simple and complex regulons CRP,CspA,Fis
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence
LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  CspA activator gyrAp Sigma70 -108.0 -145.0 gyrA
2339562 2339568 [HIBSCS] [1]
  CspA activator gyrAp Sigma70 -88.0 -125.0 gyrA
2339542 2339548 [HIBSCS] [1]
  CspA activator gyrAp Sigma70 -60.0 -97.0 gyrA
2339514 2339520 [HIBSCS] [1]
  CspA activator hnsp Sigma70 nd nd hns nd nd [BPP] [2], [3], [4]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins


 [1] Jones PG., Krah R., Tafuri SR., Wolffe AP., 1992, DNA gyrase, CS7.4, and the cold shock response in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 174(18):5798-802

 [2] Brandi A., Pon CL., Gualerzi CO., 1994, Interaction of the main cold shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter region of hns., Biochimie. 76(10-11):1090-8

 [3] Giangrossi M., Gualerzi CO., Pon CL., 2001, Mutagenesis of the downstream region of the Escherichia coli hns promoter., Biochimie. 83(2):251-9

 [4] La Teana A., Brandi A., Falconi M., Spurio R., Pon CL., Gualerzi CO., 1991, Identification of a cold shock transcriptional enhancer of the Escherichia coli gene encoding nucleoid protein H-NS., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 88(23):10907-11