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Cra DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: Cra-Fructose-1-phosphate, Cra-Fructose-1,6-diphosphate, Cra
Summary:
Catabolite repressor activator, Cra, which was initially named Fructose repressor, FruR, is a dual transcriptional regulator that plays a pleiotropic role to modulate the direction of carbon flow through the different metabolic pathways of energy metabolism, but independently of the CRP regulator [2, 3, 9, 14] For this reason the FruR regulator is implicated in the expression of a large number of operons that encode enzymes which comprise central pathways of carbon metabolism. FruR acts as an activator of genes encoding gluconeogenic [2, 14, 22, 23, 24] Krebs cycle [2, 25] and glyoxylate shunt [2, 4, 25]enzymes, and the negative effect on genes encoding Entner-Doudoroff pathway [2, 9]and glycolytic enzymes [2, 14, 22]
Cra carries out a glycolytic flux-dependent regulation.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
Cra Functional   Apo [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
Cra-Fructose-1,6-diphosphate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
Cra-Fructose-1-phosphate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
Evolutionary Family: GalR/LacI
Sensing class: Using internal synthesized signals
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: cra
  Genome position: 88028-89032
  Length: 1005 bp / 334 aa
Operon name: cra
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
cra
fruRp8


Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) aceA, aceB, aceE, aceF, aceK, acnA, acnB, adhE, aroP, betA, betB, betI, betT, crp, crr, csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG, cydA, cydB, cyoA, cyoB, cyoC, cyoD, cyoE, cysG, eda, edd, eno, envC, epd, fbaA, fbaB, fruA, fruB, fruK, gapA, glcC, glk, gpmM, hypF, icd, lpd, manX, manY, manZ, marA, marB, marR, mpl, mtlA, mtlD, mtlR, nirB, nirC, nirD, pck, pdeL, pdhR, pfkA, pgk, poxB, ppc, ppsA,
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Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
carbon compounds (26)
membrane (19)
Transcription related (8)
repressor (8)
Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS) (7)
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Regulated operon(s) aceBAK, acnA, acnB, adhE, aroP, betIBA, betT, crp, csgDEFG, cydAB, cyoABCDE, edd-eda, epd-pgk-fbaA, fbaB, fruBKA, gapA-yeaD, glcC, glk, gpmM-envC-yibQ, hydN-hypF, icd, manXYZ, marRAB, mpl, mtlADR, nirBDC-cysG, pck, pdeL, pdhR-aceEF-lpd, pfkA, poxB-ltaE-ybjT, ppc, ppsA, prpBCDE, ptsHI-crr, pykF, pyrG-eno, sgrST-setA, tpiA, zwf
First gene in the operon(s) aceB, acnA, acnB, adhE, aroP, aroP, betI, betT, crp, csgD, cydA, cyoA, edd, eno, eno, eno, epd, epd, fbaB, fruB, gapA, gapA, gapA, gapA, glcC, glk, gpmM, hypF, hypF, icd, manX, marR, mpl, mtlA, nirB, pck, pdeL, pdhR, pfkA, poxB, ppc, ppsA, prpB, ptsH, ptsH, pykF, sgrS, tpiA, zwf
Simple and complex regulons AcrR,CRP,CpxR,Cra,Fis,MarA,MarR,Rob,SoxS
ArcA,BetI,Cra
ArcA,CRP,Cra,CusR,FNR,Fis,Fur,GadE,PdhR,YedW
ArcA,CRP,Cra,FNR,MarA,Rob,SoxS
ArcA,CRP,Cra,Fis
Read more >
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[Cra,+](10)
[Cra,-](33)


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  Cra activator aceBp Sigma70 -166.5 -242.5 aceB, aceA, aceK
tgatagtcgaTCGTTAAGCGATTCAGCAccttacctca
4215227 4215244 [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [3], [4], [5]
  Cra activator acnAp2 Sigma70 nd nd acnA nd nd [GEA] [6]
  Cra repressor acnBp Sigma70 nd nd acnB nd nd [GEA] [6]
  Cra repressor adhEp1 Sigma38 36.5 -256.5 adhE
gaaaagcgatGCTGAAAGGTGTCAGCtttgcaaaaa
1298370 1298385 [BCE], [GEA], [ICWHO], [SM] [7], [8], [9]
  Cra activator aroPp1 Sigma70 -177.5 -297.5 aroP
taaaaatccgAATTGAACCGATTCACTTaccaattttg
121840 121857 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [9], [10]
  Cra activator aroPp2 Sigma70 -198.5 -297.5 aroP
taaaaatccgAATTGAACCGATTCACTTaccaattttg
121840 121857 [AIBSCS], [GEA], [ICWHO] [9], [10]
  Cra activator betIp Sigma70 nd nd betI, betB, betA nd nd [GEA] [5]
  Cra activator betTp Sigma70 nd nd betT nd nd [GEA] [5]
  Cra activator crpp1 Sigma70 -45.5 -212.5 crp
cctgggtcatGCTGAAGCGAGACACCaggagacaca
3485900 3485915 [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [11]
  Cra activator csgDp1 Sigma38 -563.5 -711.5 csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG
catttaagaaATTAAATCATTTCAACTTggttgttaac
1103899 1103916 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [12]
  Cra activator csgDp1 Sigma38 -227.5 -375.5 csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG
tgtggagaaaAAACAAGAACGTTTTACAtgacgaaagg
1103563 1103580 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [12]
  Cra activator csgDp1 Sigma38 -196.5 -344.5 csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG
cgaaaggactACACCGAAATATTTTTTAtatgcattat
1103532 1103549 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [12]
  Cra activator csgDp1 Sigma38 46.5 -102.5 csgD, csgE, csgF, csgG
tacccatttaGGGCTGATTTATTACTACacacagcagt
1103290 1103307 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [12]
  Cra activator cydAp5 Sigma70 -134.5 -224.5 cydA, cydB
cgtcgaaaaaTGCAAATTTGCTTCAACAaaaacctgtt
771225 771242 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13]
  Cra activator cydAp5 Sigma70 -105.5 -195.5 cydA, cydB
aaacctgtttATTGTAAGGATTTTGCGGcgtaatatat
771254 771271 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [13]
  Cra repressor cyoAp Sigma70 -268.5 -311.5 cyoA, cyoB, cyoC, cyoD, cyoE
aattctatttTTCTTACACGATTCAGCTaatgagtctt
451913 451930 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor eddp1 Sigma70 4.5 -105.5 edd, eda
ttattacactGACTGAAACGTTTTTGCCctatgagctc
1934701 1934718 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [14]
  Cra repressor enop1 nd -205.5 -938.5 eno
gacgattataTTTGTAAACGATTCAGCTtaaactgccc
2908871 2908888 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor enop1 nd -8.5 -741.5 eno
cgtcaacatcAAACTGATCGATTCACAAgatgttgaaa
2908674 2908691 [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor enop2 nd -177.5 -938.5 eno
gacgattataTTTGTAAACGATTCAGCTtaaactgccc
2908871 2908888 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor enop2 nd 20.5 -741.5 eno
cgtcaacatcAAACTGATCGATTCACAAgatgttgaaa
2908674 2908691 [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor enop3 nd -33.5 -938.5 eno
gacgattataTTTGTAAACGATTCAGCTtaaactgccc
2908871 2908888 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor enop3 nd 164.5 -741.5 eno
cgtcaacatcAAACTGATCGATTCACAAgatgttgaaa
2908674 2908691 [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor epdp Sigma70 3.5 -129.5 epd, pgk, fbaA
cgcttatcctAGCTGAAGCGTTTCAGTCgattaaatgt
3073812 3073829 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [14]
  Cra repressor fbaBp Sigma38 -35.5 -138.5 fbaB
acattttttcTGATGAATCGAGCCAACAgaaaacgctg
2178694 2178711 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor fruBp Sigma70 7.5 -95.5 fruB, fruK, fruA
gtattatgctTTCTTGAAACGTTTCAGCgcgatcttgt
2263582 2263599 [AIBSCS], [GEA], [NTAS] [3], [10]
  Cra repressor fruBp Sigma70 73.5 -29.5 fruB, fruK, fruA
ttttctcataGAGGCTGAATCGTTTCAAttcagcaaga
2263516 2263533 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor gapAp1 Sigma70 -725.5 -761.5 gapA
tggaataagtTGCTGAATCGTTTTTTCAaccgttgatt
1862001 1862018 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp1 Sigma70 -43.5 -79.5 gapA
ttgtcgcaatGATTGACACGATTCCGCTtgacgctgcg
1862683 1862700 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp2 Sigma32 -608.5 -761.5 gapA, yeaD
tggaataagtTGCTGAATCGTTTTTTCAaccgttgatt
1862001 1862018 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp2 Sigma32 74.5 -79.5 gapA, yeaD
ttgtcgcaatGATTGACACGATTCCGCTtgacgctgcg
1862683 1862700 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp3 Sigma70 -587.5 -761.5 gapA
tggaataagtTGCTGAATCGTTTTTTCAaccgttgatt
1862001 1862018 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp3 Sigma70 95.5 -79.5 gapA
ttgtcgcaatGATTGACACGATTCCGCTtgacgctgcg
1862683 1862700 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp4 Sigma70 -516.5 -761.5 gapA
tggaataagtTGCTGAATCGTTTTTTCAaccgttgatt
1862001 1862018 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor gapAp4 Sigma70 166.5 -79.5 gapA
ttgtcgcaatGATTGACACGATTCCGCTtgacgctgcg
1862683 1862700 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor glcCp Sigma70 -4.5 -70.5 glcC
aattgatgtaACATAATCACTTACGTGAtgtgcgtgtt
3128193 3128210 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor glkp Sigma70 -91.5 -126.5 glk
ctgcaattggTGCTGAAACGATAAAGTAattgtgtgac
2509544 2509561 [AIBSCS], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10], [16]
  Cra repressor gpmMp nd -31.5 -56.5 gpmM, envC, yibQ
cttcagaggcTATTTTATCGATTCAGCTgtagtaaaat
3785195 3785212 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor hypFp2 Sigma70 -84.5 -673.5 hypF
ctggagaattTGATGAACCGTTTCATCAttgctgacgc
2838090 2838107 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor hypFp3 Sigma70 7.5 -673.5 hypF
ctggagaattTGATGAACCGTTTCATCAttgctgacgc
2838090 2838107 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra activator icdAp2 Sigma70 -76.5 -238.5 icd
gaacgttgcgAGCTGAATCGCTTAACCTggtgatttct
1194876 1194893 [BPP] [17]
  Cra repressor manXp Sigma70 40.5 -75.5 manX, manY, manZ
tgtagcccttATCTGAATCGATTCGAttgtggacga
1901965 1901980 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [9]
  Cra repressor marRp Sigma70 -72.5 -99.5 marR, marA, marB
attgaacaaaACTTGAACCGATTTAGCAaaacgtggca
1619012 1619029 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor mplp1 Sigma38 -36.5 -93.5 mpl
tgttgcgctcAGGTGAATCGCGCCAGCAaattacggat
4455683 4455700 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor mtlAp Sigma70 -22.5 -115.5 mtlA, mtlD, mtlR
gtcgactggaCAGTTAACCGATTCAGTGccagatttcg
3772157 3772174 [BPP], [GEA] [14]
  Cra repressor nirBp Sigma70 -15.5 -39.5 nirB, nirD, nirC, cysG
taagcggggtTGCTGAATCGTTAAGGTAggcggtaata
3493963 3493980 [BCE], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [18], [19]
  Cra activator pckp Sigma70 -139.5 -278.5 pck
aaagttagcgTGGTGAATCGATACTTTAccggttgaat
3532531 3532548 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS], [SM] [14]
  Cra repressor pdhRp Sigma70 -185.5 -243.5 pdhR, aceE, aceF, lpd
caaaattggtAAGTGAATCGGTTCAATTcggattttta
121840 121857 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [9], [10]
  Cra repressor pfkAp2 Sigma70 -35.5 -113.5 pfkA
atttggcctgACCTGAATCAATTCAGCAggaagtgatt
4107430 4107447 [BPP] [20]
  Cra activator poxBp Sigma38 nd nd poxB nd nd [GEA] [5]
  Cra repressor ppcp nd -46.5 -138.5 ppc
tttattcgttTGCTGAAGCGATTTCGCAgcatttgacg
4153228 4153245 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra activator ppsp Sigma70 -45.5 -94.5 ppsA
aaatatatttGCTTGAACGATTCACCgtttttttca
1787199 1787214 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [ICWHO] [3], [5], [9], [10]
  Cra repressor prpBp Sigma54 -101.5 -137.5 prpB, prpC, prpD, prpE
ctgaaacgttAACTGAAACGCATATTTGcggattagtt
348536 348553 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor ptsHp1 nd -55.5 -211.5 ptsH, ptsI, crr
gaaaagccaaAGCTGAATCGATTTTATGatttggttca
2533544 2533561 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10], [21]
  Cra activator ptsHp2 Sigma70 -48.5 -211.5 ptsH, ptsI, crr
gaaaagccaaAGCTGAATCGATTTTATGatttggttca
2533544 2533561 [AIBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [10], [21]
  Cra repressor pykFp Sigma70 18.5 -213.5 pykF
gccaattgacTCTTGAATGGTTTCAGCActttggactg
1755476 1755493 [BCE], [SM] [22]
  Cra repressor sgrSp Sigma70 -332.5 -332.5 sgrS, sgrT, setA
tgcaccagttGATCGATACGATCCTGCTccagcaggtc
77026 77043 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor tpiAp2 Sigma70 -91.5 -153.5 tpiA
tgaccttcgcTGTTGAACCGATTAAGCTggcgctatct
4111652 4111669 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]
  Cra repressor yahAp1 Sigma70 -159.5 -491.5 pdeL
ggttatcattTGCTGAATGGATTCAGTCttaatgagtg
331871 331888 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [15]
  Cra repressor yahAp1 Sigma70 -13.5 -345.5 pdeL
cagttgatctGGATTGTTAAATTCATATaatgcgcctt
332017 332034 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [15]
  Cra repressor zwfp Sigma70 -35.5 -97.5 zwf
gggtggataaGCGTTTACAGTTTTCGCAagctcgtaaa
1936403 1936420 [AIBSCS], [GEA] [10]


Alignment and PSSM for Cra TFBSs    

Aligned TFBS of Cra   
  Sequence
  ATCGATACGATCCTGC
  ATTGAACCGATTCACT
  ACTGAATCCATTCAGC
  AATTTAACAATCCAGA
  AAATATGCGTTTCAGT
  TCTTACACGATTCAGC
  GTTGAAGCAAATTTGC
  ATTGTAAGGATTTTGC
  GTAGTAATAAATCAGC
  ACCGAAATATTTTTTA
  ACAAGAACGTTTTACA
  ATTAAATCATTTCAAC
  GGTTAAGCGATTCAGC
  GCTGACACCTTTCAGC
  CTTGAACCGATTTAGC
  CTTGAATGGTTTCAGC
  GCTTGAACGATTCACC
  GAAAAAACGATTCAGC
  ATTGACACGATTCCGC
  ATCGAATCGATTCAGA
  ACTGAAACGTTTTTGC
  CGTTTACAGTTTTCGC
  GTTGGCTCGATTCATC
  ATTGAAACGATTCAGC
  CTTGAAACGTTTCAGC
  ACTTTATCGTTTCAGC
  ATAAAATCGATTCAGC
  GATGAACCGTTTCATC
  AACTGATCGATTCACA
  TTGTAAACGATTCAGC
  ACTGAAACGCTTCAGC
  ACATAATCACTTACGT
  GGTGTCTCGCTTCAGC
  ACCTTAACGATTCAGC
  AAAGTATCGATTCACC
  AGTTAACCGATTCAGT
  ATTTTATCGATTCAGC
  CCTGAATCAATTCAGC
  GTTGAACCGATTAAGC
  GCTGAAGCGATTTCGC
  CGTTAAGCGATTCAGC
  GCTGGCGCGATTCACC

Position weight matrix (PWM).   
A	22	6	7	4	28	34	17	1	7	28	2	0	2	33	1	5
C	6	14	5	0	0	6	6	37	2	3	0	2	32	4	6	33
G	12	5	1	24	5	0	6	2	33	0	0	0	0	0	32	0
T	2	17	29	14	9	2	13	2	0	11	40	40	8	5	3	4

PWM logo   


 


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
TF-target gene evolutionary conservation
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


Evidence    

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [SM] Site mutation

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [ICWHO] Inferred computationally without human oversight

 [AIBSCS] Automated inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences

 [NTAS] Non-traceable author statement



Reference(s)    

 [1] 8577250., null, null, null

 [2] Ramseier TM., null, Cra and the control of carbon flux via metabolic pathways., Res Microbiol. 147(6-7):489-93

 [3] Ramseier TM., Negre D., Cortay JC., Scarabel M., Cozzone AJ., Saier MH., 1993, In vitro binding of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein, FruR, to the fru, pps, ace, pts and icd operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium., J Mol Biol. 234(1):28-44

 [4] Cortay JC., Negre D., Scarabel M., Ramseier TM., Vartak NB., Reizer J., Saier MH., Cozzone AJ., 1994, In vitro asymmetric binding of the pleiotropic regulatory protein, FruR, to the ace operator controlling glyoxylate shunt enzyme synthesis., J Biol Chem. 269(21):14885-91

 [5] Son YJ., Phue JN., Trinh LB., Lee SJ., Shiloach J., 2011, The role of Cra in regulating acetate excretion and osmotic tolerance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli B at high density growth., Microb Cell Fact. 10:52

 [6] Cunningham L., Gruer MJ., Guest JR., 1997, Transcriptional regulation of the aconitase genes (acnA and acnB) of Escherichia coli., Microbiology. 143 ( Pt 12):3795-805

 [7] Kaga N., Umitsuki G., Clark DP., Nagai K., Wachi M., 2002, Extensive overproduction of the AdhE protein by rng mutations depends on mutations in the cra gene or in the Cra-box of the adhE promoter., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 295(1):92-7

 [8] Mikulskis A., Aristarkhov A., Lin EC., 1997, Regulation of expression of the ethanol dehydrogenase gene (adhE) in Escherichia coli by catabolite repressor activator protein Cra., J Bacteriol. 179(22):7129-34

 [9] Sarkar D., Siddiquee KA., Arauzo-Bravo MJ., Oba T., Shimizu K., 2008, Effect of cra gene knockout together with edd and iclR genes knockout on the metabolism in Escherichia coli., Arch Microbiol. 190(5):559-71

 [10] Shimada T., Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., 2011, Novel Members of the Cra Regulon Involved in Carbon Metabolism in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 193(3):649-59

 [11] Zhang Z., Aboulwafa M., Saier MH., 2014, Regulation of crp Gene Expression by the Catabolite Repressor/Activator, Cra, in Escherichia coli., J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 24(3):135-41

 [12] Reshamwala SM., Noronha SB., 2011, Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli cra mutants is impaired due to down-regulation of curli biosynthesis., Arch Microbiol. 193(10):711-22

 [13] Ramseier TM., Chien SY., Saier MH., 1996, Cooperative interaction between Cra and Fnr in the regulation of the cydAB operon of Escherichia coli., Curr Microbiol. 33(4):270-4

 [14] Ramseier TM., Bledig S., Michotey V., Feghali R., Saier MH., 1995, The global regulatory protein FruR modulates the direction of carbon flow in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 16(6):1157-69

 [15] Shimada T., Fujita N., Maeda M., Ishihama A., 2005, Systematic search for the Cra-binding promoters using genomic SELEX system., Genes Cells. 10(9):907-18

 [16] Meyer D., Schneider-Fresenius C., Horlacher R., Peist R., Boos W., 1997, Molecular characterization of glucokinase from Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 179(4):1298-306

 [17] Prost JF., Negre D., Oudot C., Murakami K., Ishihama A., Cozzone AJ., Cortay JC., 1999, Cra-dependent transcriptional activation of the icd gene of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 181(3):893-8

 [18] Browning DF., Cole JA., Busby SJ., 2004, Transcription activation by remodelling of a nucleoprotein assembly: the role of NarL at the FNR-dependent Escherichia coli nir promoter., Mol Microbiol. 53(1):203-15

 [19] Tyson K., Busby S., Cole J., 1997, Catabolite regulation of two Escherichia coli operons encoding nitrite reductases: role of the Cra protein., Arch Microbiol. 168(3):240-4

 [20] Negre D., Bonod-Bidaud C., Geourjon C., Deleage G., Cozzone AJ., Cortay JC., 1996, Definition of a consensus DNA-binding site for the Escherichia coli pleiotropic regulatory protein, FruR., Mol Microbiol. 21(2):257-66

 [21] Ryu S., Ramseier TM., Michotey V., Saier MH., Garges S., 1995, Effect of the FruR regulator on transcription of the pts operon in Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem. 270(6):2489-96

 [22] Bledig SA., Ramseier TM., Saier MH., 1996, Frur mediates catabolite activation of pyruvate kinase (pykF) gene expression in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 178(1):280-3

 [23] Chin AM., Feldheim DA., Saier MH., 1989, Altered transcriptional patterns affecting several metabolic pathways in strains of Salmonella typhimurium which overexpress the fructose regulon., J Bacteriol. 171(5):2424-34

 [24] Chin AM., Feucht BU., Saier MH., 1987, Evidence for regulation of gluconeogenesis by the fructose phosphotransferase system in Salmonella typhimurium., J Bacteriol. 169(2):897-9

 [25] Cozzone AJ., El-Mansi M., 2005, Control of isocitrate dehydrogenase catalytic activity by protein phosphorylation in Escherichia coli., J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 9(3-4):132-46

 [26] Kochanowski K., Volkmer B., Gerosa L., Haverkorn van Rijsewijk BR., Schmidt A., Heinemann M., 2013, Functioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(3):1130-5

 [27] Vartak NB., Reizer J., Reizer A., Gripp JT., Groisman EA., Wu LF., Tomich JM., Saier MH., null, Sequence and evolution of the FruR protein of Salmonella typhimurium: a pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein possessing both activator and repressor functions which is homologous to the periplasmic ribose-binding protein., Res Microbiol. 142(9):951-63

 [28] Weickert MJ., Adhya S., 1992, A family of bacterial regulators homologous to Gal and Lac repressors., J Biol Chem. 267(22):15869-74

 [29] Leclerc G., Noel G., Drapeau GR., 1990, Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of shl, a new gene in the 2-minute region of the genetic map of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol. 172(8):4696-700



RegulonDB