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MarR DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: MarR-2,4-dinitrophenol, MarR-Benzoate, MarR-Menadione, MarR-Paraquat, MarR-Phenazine methosulfate, MarR-Plumbagin, MarR-Sodium salicylate, MarR, MarR-salicylate
Summary:
MarR, "Multiple antibiotic resistance" [4], participates in controlling several genes involved in resistance to antibiotics, multidrug efflux [8], oxidative stress [], organic solvents [], and heavy metals []. MarR is part of the marRAB operon and negatively autoregulates its own expression []. The marA gene encodes a transcriptional activator that autoactivates expression of the marRAB operon and that regulates the expression of a global network of at least 80 chromosomal genes [9], as well as expression of the marB gene, whose product has an unknown function []. Under laboratory conditions, the marRAB operon can be induced by tetracycline, chloramphenicol, or salicylate [1, 3, 10], plumbagin, dinitrophenol, and menadione [], and other chemicals with phenolic rings [].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
MarR Functional   Apo [APPH], [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2], [3]
MarR-2,4-dinitrophenol Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Benzoate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Menadione Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Paraquat Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Phenazine methosulfate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Plumbagin Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
MarR-Sodium salicylate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo nd nd
MarR-salicylate Non-Functional Allosteric Holo [BPP], [GEA] [3]
Evolutionary Family: MarR
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: marR
  Genome position: 1619120-1619554
  Length: 435 bp / 144 aa
Operon name: marRAB
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
marRAB
marRp


Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) marA, marB, marR
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
drug resistance/sensitivity (3)
Transcription related (2)
repressor (2)
operon (2)
detoxification (2)
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Regulated operon(s) marRAB
First gene in the operon(s) marR
Simple and complex regulons AcrR,CRP,CpxR,Cra,Fis,MarA,MarR,Rob,SoxS
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[MarR,-](1)


Transcription factor regulation    


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements
      

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  MarR repressor marRp Sigma70 -18.0 -45.0 marR, marA, marB
catttgacttATACTTGCCTGGGCAATATTATcccctgcaac
1619064 1619085 [AIBSCS], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/GS)], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/ROMA)], [CV(CHIP-SV/SM)], [CV(GEA/GS)], [CV(GEA/ROMA)], [CV(GEA/ROMA/SM)], [CV(GEA/SM/GS)], [GEA], [GS], [SM] [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]
  MarR repressor marRp Sigma70 17.0 -11.0 marR, marA, marB
cctgcaactaATTACTTGCCAGGGCAACTAATgtgaaaagta
1619098 1619119 [AIBSCS], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/GS)], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/ROMA)], [CV(CHIP-SV/SM)], [CV(GEA/GS)], [CV(GEA/ROMA)], [CV(GEA/ROMA/SM)], [CV(GEA/SM/GS)], [GEA], [GS], [SM] [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation




Reference(s)    

 [1] Martin RG., Rosner JL., 1995, Binding of purified multiple antibiotic-resistance repressor protein (MarR) to mar operator sequences., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(12):5456-60

 [2] Notka F., Linde HJ., Dankesreiter A., Niller HH., Lehn N., 2002, A C-terminal 18 amino acid deletion in MarR in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli reduces MarR binding properties and increases the MIC of ciprofloxacin., J Antimicrob Chemother 49(1):41-7

 [3] Seoane AS., Levy SB., 1995, Characterization of MarR, the repressor of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 177(12):3414-9

 [4] Cohen SP., Hachler H., Levy SB., 1993, Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 175(5):1484-92

 [5] Martin RG., Rosner JL., 2004, Transcriptional and translational regulation of the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 53(1):183-91

 [6] Rodionov DA., Gelfand MS., Mironov AA., Rakhmaninova AB., 2001, Comparative approach to analysis of regulation in complete genomes: multidrug resistance systems in gamma-proteobacteria., J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3(2):319-24

 [7] Shimada T., Ogasawara H., Ishihama A., 2018, Single-target regulators form a minor group of transcription factors in Escherichia coli K-12., Nucleic Acids Res 46(8):3921-3936

 [8] Ruiz C., Levy SB., 2010, Many chromosomal genes modulate MarA-mediated multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli., Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54(5):2125-34

 [9] Pomposiello PJ., Bennik MH., Demple B., 2001, Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the Escherichia coli responses to superoxide stress and sodium salicylate., J Bacteriol 183(13):3890-902

 [10] Sulavik MC., Gambino LF., Miller PF., 1995, The MarR repressor of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli: prototypic member of a family of bacterial regulatory proteins involved in sensing phenolic compounds., Mol Med 1(4):436-46

 [11] Chubiz LM, Glekas GD, Rao CV, 2012, Transcriptional cross talk within the mar-sox-rob regulon in Escherichia coli is limited to the rob and marRAB operons., J Bacteriol, 2012 Sep

 [12] Martin RG., Jair KW., Wolf RE., Rosner JL., 1996, Autoactivation of the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon by the MarA transcriptional activator in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 178(8):2216-23

 [13] Linde HJ., Notka F., Metz M., Kochanowski B., Heisig P., Lehn N., 2000, In vivo increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli associated with deletion of the C-terminal part of MarR., Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44(7):1865-8

 [14] Perez-Rueda E., Collado-Vides J., Segovia L., 2004, Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea., Comput Biol Chem 28(5-6):341-50

 [15] Doukyu N., Ishikawa K., Watanabe R., Ogino H., 2012, Improvement in organic solvent tolerance by double disruptions of proV and marR genes in Escherichia coli., J Appl Microbiol 112(3):464-74



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