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MalI DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: MalI
"Maltose inhibitor," MalI, is a repressor that controls genes related to the maltose system. It is negatively autoregulated and coordinately represses transcription of a divergent operon that encodes a maltose-glucose PTS permease and a bifunctional protein that interacts directly with the MalT transcriptional activator [1, 2] This transcription factor binds to two 12-bp-long direct repeat nucleotide sequences in tandem, overlapping the malXp and malIp simultaneously [1, 2] MalI shows high similarity to GalR (28%), CytR (21%), and LacI (24%), and homology to a fragment of 30 amino acids from MalT. Additionally, the N-terminal region has a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain [2] The gene encoding this protein is homologous to transcriptional repressors of the LacI/GalR family.

Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
MalI Functional   [HIFS], [ICA], [IEP] [1], [2]
Evolutionary Family: GalR/LacI
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: malI
  Genome position: 1698152-1699180
  Length: 1029 bp / 342 aa
Operon name: malI
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) malI, malX, malY
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
carbon compounds (3)
operon (2)
Transcription related (1)
repressor (1)
Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS) (1)
Regulated operon(s) malI, malXY
First gene in the operon(s) malI, malX
Simple and complex regulons CRP,MalI
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  MalI repressor malIp Sigma70 10.5 -38.5 malI
1699210 1699227 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2], [3], [4]
  MalI repressor malXp Sigma70 -16.5 -58.5 malX, malY
1699288 1699305 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2], [3]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [HIFS] Human inference of function from sequence

 [ICA] Inferred by computational analysis

 [IEP] Inferred from expression pattern

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [SM] Site mutation


 [1] Reidl J., Boos W., 1991, The malX malY operon of Escherichia coli encodes a novel enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system recognizing glucose and maltose and an enzyme abolishing the endogenous induction of the maltose system., J Bacteriol 173(15):4862-76

 [2] Reidl J., Romisch K., Ehrmann M., Boos W., 1989, MalI, a novel protein involved in regulation of the maltose system of Escherichia coli, is highly homologous to the repressor proteins GalR, CytR, and LacI., J Bacteriol 171(9):4888-99

 [3] Lloyd GS., Godfrey RE., Busby SJ., 2010, Targets for the MalI repressor at the divergent Escherichia coli K-12 malX-malI promoters., FEMS Microbiol Lett 305(1):28-34

 [4] Otsuka J., Watanabe H., Mori KT., 1996, Evolution of transcriptional regulation system through promiscuous coupling of regulatory proteins with operons; suggestion from protein sequence similarities in Escherichia coli., J Theor Biol 178(2):183-204