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BolA DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: BolA
BolA regulates the transcription of genes involved in the morphology of the cell to confer protection to the cell, specifically under stress conditions and during stationary phase [3, 5] Its overexpression produces round-shaped cells, alters elongation and cell septation [2, 3] induces biofilm formation [] involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli [], impairs cell growth rate [4], and alters the properties of the outer membrane [] Under poor growth conditions, BolA is essential for normal cell morphology during both the exponential and stationary growth phases and in response to sudden carbon starvation [3].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
BolA Functional   [GEA], [HIFS] [1], [2], [3]
Evolutionary Family: BolA
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: bolA
  Genome position: 454472-454789
  Length: 318 bp / 105 aa
Operon name: bolA
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
Gene name: grxD
  Genome position: 1733754-1734101
  Length: 348 bp / 115 aa
Operon name: grxD
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) ampC, dacC
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
murein (peptidoglycan) (2)
drug resistance/sensitivity (1)
murein (1)
Regulated operon(s) ampC, dacC
First gene in the operon(s) ampC, dacC
Simple and complex regulons BolA
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  BolA dual ampCp Sigma70 nd 4378944.0 ampC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3]
  BolA dual ampCp Sigma70 nd 4378944.0 ampC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3]
  BolA dual dacCp Sigma70 nd -880727.0 dacC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3], [4]
  BolA dual dacCp Sigma70 nd -880727.0 dacC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3], [4]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [HIFS] Human inference of function from sequence

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype


 [1] Aldea M., Garrido T., Hernandez-Chico C., Vicente M., Kushner SR., 1989, Induction of a growth-phase-dependent promoter triggers transcription of bolA, an Escherichia coli morphogene., EMBO J 8(12):3923-31

 [2] Aldea M., Hernandez-Chico C., de la Campa AG., Kushner SR., Vicente M., 1988, Identification, cloning, and expression of bolA, an ftsZ-dependent morphogene of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 170(11):5169-76

 [3] Santos JM., Lobo M., Matos AP., De Pedro MA., Arraiano CM., 2002, The gene bolA regulates dacA (PBP5), dacC (PBP6) and ampC (AmpC), promoting normal morphology in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 45(6):1729-40

 [4] Guinote IB., Matos R., Freire P., Arraiano C., 2011, BolA Affects Cell Growth, and Binds to the Promoters of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 5 and 6 and Regulates Their Expression., J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(3):243-51

 [5] Freire P., Moreira RN., Arraiano CM., 2009, BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels., J Mol Biol 385(5):1345-51

 [6] 10361282;, null, null, null