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BolA DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: BolA
BolA regulates the transcription of genes involved in the morphology of the cell to confer protection to the cell, specifically under stress conditions and during stationary phase |CITS:[ 12354237][ 19111750]|. Its overexpression produces round-shaped cells, alters elongation and cell septation |CITS:[3053647][12354237]|, induces biofilm formation |CITS:[15345459][21630090][25691594]|, involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli |CITS: [25691594]|, impairs cell growth rate |CITS: [21464593]|, and alters the properties of the outer membrane |CITS:[16790025]|. Under poor growth conditions, BolA is essential for normal cell morphology during both the exponential and stationary growth phases and in response to sudden carbon starvation |CITS:[12354237 ]|.
The transcription expression analysis of some genes with BolA mutants and the presence of a putative helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding suggest that BolA is a transcriptional regulator, although its regulatory mechanism and specific DNA-binding site remain to be determined |CITS:[ 2684651]|. On the other hand, structural, sequence, and physical interaction analyses show that BolA could be a reductase that interacts with glutaredoxin |CITS:[ 15670813]|.
BolA is a member of the BolA family, which is widely distributed among proteobacteria and eukaryotes |CITS:[ 15670813]|.
The expression of bolA is regulated at the transcriptional level and at posttranscriptional levels. Its transcription is induced under stationary phase |CITS:[ 1648559]| and under different stress conditions, such as carbon starvation, osmotic stress, heat shock, acidic stress, and oxidative stress |CITS:[10361282]|.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
BolA     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: BolA
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: bolA
  Genome position: 454472-454789
  Length: 318 bp / 105 aa
Operon name: bolA
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) ampC, dacC
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
drug resistance/sensitivity (2)
murein (peptidoglycan) (1)
murein (1)
cell division (1)
Regulated operon(s) ampC, dacC
First gene in the operon(s) ampC, dacC
Simple and complex regulons BolA
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  BolA dual ampCp Sigma70 nd nd ampC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [1]
  BolA dual dacCp Sigma70 nd nd dacC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [1], [2]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype


 [1] Santos JM., Lobo M., Matos AP., De Pedro MA., Arraiano CM., 2002, The gene bolA regulates dacA (PBP5), dacC (PBP6) and ampC (AmpC), promoting normal morphology in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 45(6):1729-40

 [2] Guinote IB., Matos R., Freire P., Arraiano C., 2011, BolA Affects Cell Growth, and Binds to the Promoters of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 5 and 6 and Regulates Their Expression., J Microbiol Biotechnol. 21(3):243-51