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BolA DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: BolA
BolA regulates the transcription of genes involved in the morphology of the cell to confer protection to the cell, specifically under stress conditions and during stationary phase [3, 5] Its overexpression produces round-shaped cells, alters elongation and cell septation [2, 3] induces biofilm formation [6, 7, 8] involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli [8], impairs cell growth rate [4], and alters the properties of the outer membrane [9] Under poor growth conditions, BolA is essential for normal cell morphology during both the exponential and stationary growth phases and in response to sudden carbon starvation [3].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
BolA Functional   [GEA], [HIFS] [1], [2], [3]
Evolutionary Family: BolA
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: bolA
  Genome position: 454472-454789
  Length: 318 bp / 105 aa
Operon name: bolA
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) ampC, dacC, mreB, mreC, mreD
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
murein (peptidoglycan) (2)
biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) (2)
drug resistance/sensitivity (1)
murein (1)
adaptations (1)
Regulated operon(s) ampC, dacC, mreBCD
First gene in the operon(s) ampC, dacC, mreB, mreB
Simple and complex regulons BolA
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  BolA activator ampCp Sigma70 nd nd ampC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3]
  BolA repressor ampCp Sigma70 nd nd ampC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3]
  BolA activator dacCp Sigma70 nd nd dacC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3], [4]
  BolA repressor dacCp Sigma70 nd nd dacC nd nd [GEA], [IMP] [3], [4]
  BolA repressor mreBp1 Sigma70 nd nd mreB, mreC, mreD nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [5]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [HIFS] Human inference of function from sequence

 [IMP] Inferred from mutant phenotype

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins


 [1] Aldea M., Garrido T., Hernandez-Chico C., Vicente M., Kushner SR., 1989, Induction of a growth-phase-dependent promoter triggers transcription of bolA, an Escherichia coli morphogene., EMBO J 8(12):3923-31

 [2] Aldea M., Hernandez-Chico C., de la Campa AG., Kushner SR., Vicente M., 1988, Identification, cloning, and expression of bolA, an ftsZ-dependent morphogene of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 170(11):5169-76

 [3] Santos JM., Lobo M., Matos AP., De Pedro MA., Arraiano CM., 2002, The gene bolA regulates dacA (PBP5), dacC (PBP6) and ampC (AmpC), promoting normal morphology in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol 45(6):1729-40

 [4] Guinote IB., Matos R., Freire P., Arraiano C., 2011, BolA Affects Cell Growth, and Binds to the Promoters of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 5 and 6 and Regulates Their Expression., J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(3):243-51

 [5] Freire P., Moreira RN., Arraiano CM., 2009, BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels., J Mol Biol 385(5):1345-51

 [6] Vieira HL, Freire P, Arraiano CM, 2004, Effect of Escherichia coli morphogene bolA on biofilms., Appl Environ Microbiol, 2004 Sep

 [7] Adnan M, Morton G, Hadi S, 2011, Analysis of rpoS and bolA gene expression under various stress-induced environments in planktonic and biofilm phase using 2(-??CT) method., Mol Cell Biochem, 2011 Nov

 [8] Dressaire C, Moreira RN, Barahona S, Alves de Matos AP, Arraiano CM, 2015, BolA is a transcriptional switch that turns off motility and turns on biofilm development., MBio, 2015 Feb 17

 [9] Freire P, Vieira HL, Furtado AR, de Pedro MA, Arraiano CM, 2006, Effect of the morphogene bolA on the permeability of the Escherichia coli outer membrane., FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2006 Jul

 [10] Moreira RN, Dressaire C, Barahona S, Galego L, Kaever V, Jenal U, Arraiano CM, 2017, BolA Is Required for the Accurate Regulation of c-di-GMP, a Central Player in Biofilm Formation., MBio, 2017 Sep 19

 [11] Huynen MA, Spronk CA, Gabaldón T, Snel B, 2005, Combining data from genomes, Y2H and 3D structure indicates that BolA is a reductase interacting with a glutaredoxin., FEBS Lett, 2005 Jan 31

 [12] Lange R, Hengge-Aronis R, 1991, Growth phase-regulated expression of bolA and morphology of stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells are controlled by the novel sigma factor sigma S., J Bacteriol, 1991 Jul

 [13] Santos JM, Freire P, Vicente M, Arraiano CM, 1999, The stationary-phase morphogene bolA from Escherichia coli is induced by stress during early stages of growth., Mol Microbiol, 1999 May

 [14] Freire P, Amaral JD, Santos JM, Arraiano CM, 2006, Adaptation to carbon starvation: RNase III ensures normal expression levels of bolA1p mRNA and sigma(S)., Biochimie, 2006 Mar-Apr

 [15] Guinote IB, Moreira RN, Barahona S, Freire P, Vicente M, Arraiano CM, 2014, Breaking through the stress barrier: the role of BolA in Gram-negative survival., World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Oct

 [16] Adnan M, Morton G, Singh J, Hadi S, 2010, Contribution of rpoS and bolA genes in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655., Mol Cell Biochem, 2010 Sep