BolA regulates the transcription of genes involved in the morphology of the cell to confer protection to the cell, specifically under stress conditions and during stationary phase |CITS:[ 12354237][ 19111750]|. Its overexpression produces round-shaped cells, alters elongation and cell septation |CITS:|, induces biofilm formation |CITS:|, involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli |CITS: |, impairs cell growth rate |CITS: |, and alters the properties of the outer membrane |CITS:|. Under poor growth conditions, BolA is essential for normal cell morphology during both the exponential and stationary growth phases and in response to sudden carbon starvation |CITS:[12354237 ]|.
The transcription expression analysis of some genes with BolA mutants and the presence of a putative helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding suggest that BolA is a transcriptional regulator, although its regulatory mechanism and specific DNA-binding site remain to be determined |CITS:[ 2684651]|. On the other hand, structural, sequence, and physical interaction analyses show that BolA could be a reductase that interacts with glutaredoxin |CITS:[ 15670813]|.
BolA is a member of the BolA family, which is widely distributed among proteobacteria and eukaryotes |CITS:[ 15670813]|.
The expression of bolA is regulated at the transcriptional level and at posttranscriptional levels. Its transcription is induced under stationary phase |CITS:[ 1648559]| and under different stress conditions, such as carbon starvation, osmotic stress, heat shock, acidic stress, and oxidative stress |CITS:|.
On the other hand, bolA mRNA stability during glucose starvation is enhanced in the presence of RNase III function |CITS:|.Read more >
Based on ChIP-seq and transcriptomic analysis, it was shown that BolA is a protein with high affinity to DNA and is able to regulate many genes on a genome-wide scale |CITS:|. BolA regulates flagellum and curli biosynthesis pathways. It is a transcriptional switch that turns off/on mobility and biofilm development, respectively |CITS:|.
BolA modulates the switch from a planktonic to a sessile lifestyle |CITS:|. Overexpression of BolA favors biofilm formation, which involves the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli |CITS:|.
Review: |CITS: |.
|Connectivity class:||Local Regulator|
|Length:||318 bp / 105 aa|
|TU(s) encoding the TF:||
|Regulated gene(s)||ampC, dacC|
|Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s)||
MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
drug resistance/sensitivity (2)
murein (peptidoglycan) (1)
cell division (1)
|Regulated operon(s)||ampC, dacC|
|First gene in the operon(s)||ampC, dacC|
|Simple and complex regulons|
|Simple and complex regulatory phrases||Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)|
|Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements|
 Santos JM., Lobo M., Matos AP., De Pedro MA., Arraiano CM., 2002, The gene bolA regulates dacA (PBP5), dacC (PBP6) and ampC (AmpC), promoting normal morphology in Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 45(6):1729-40
 Guinote IB., Matos R., Freire P., Arraiano C., 2011, BolA Affects Cell Growth, and Binds to the Promoters of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 5 and 6 and Regulates Their Expression., J Microbiol Biotechnol. 21(3):243-51