BluR is a MerR-like regulator that contains an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding region and a ligand-binding region in the C-terminal domain .
BluR functions as a repressor for genes involved in the modulation of biofilm formation and for acid resistance genes . Its expression is strongly induced at low temperatures [1, 3, 4].
BluR is a paralogue of MlrA, and it represses the transcription of the ycgZ-ymgA-ariR-ymgC operon [1, 5]. This operon is transcribed divergently on the opposite strand, under the control of σ38 (RpoS) RNA polymerase [1, 6]. Its gene products are involved in the production of colanic acid, a component of the biofilm matrix, via the Rcs phosphorelay system [7, 8, 9, 10].
The bluRF-ycgZ-ymgA-ariR region is conserved in various enteric bacteria [1, 5]Read more >
BluR binds to the promoter region of ycgZ. BluF is an antagonist of BluR [1, 5]. It binds to the N-terminal domain of BluR and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of BluR. Binding of BluF to BluR is stimulated by blue light [1, 5].
Although bluR and bluF are transcribed in the same direction and located next to each other on the chromosome, they do not constitute an operon .
|Connectivity class:||Local Regulator|
|Length:||732 bp / 243 aa|
|TU(s) encoding the TF:||
|Regulated gene(s)||ariR, ycgZ, ymgA, ymgC|
|Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s)||
MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress) (1)
|First gene in the operon(s)||ycgZ|
|Simple and complex regulons|
|Simple and complex regulatory phrases||Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)|
|Transcription factor regulation|
|Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements|
 White-Ziegler CA., Um S., Perez NM., Berns AL., Malhowski AJ., Young S., 2008, Low temperature (23 degrees C) increases expression of biofilm-, cold-shock- and RpoS-dependent genes in Escherichia coli K-12., Microbiology. 154(Pt 1):148-66
 Gama-Castro S., Jimenez-Jacinto V., Peralta-Gil M., Santos-Zavaleta A., Penaloza-Spinola MI., Contreras-Moreira B., Segura-Salazar J., Muniz-Rascado L., Martinez-Flores I., Salgado H., Bonavides-Martinez C., Abreu-Goodger C., Rodriguez-Penagos C., Miranda-Rios J., Morett E., Merino E., Huerta AM., Trevino-Quintanilla L., Collado-Vides J., 2008, RegulonDB (version 6.0): gene regulation model of Escherichia coli K-12 beyond transcription, active (experimental) annotated promoters and Textpresso navigation., Nucleic Acids Res. 36(Database issue):D120-4
 Lee J., Page R., Garcia-Contreras R., Palermino JM., Zhang XS., Doshi O., Wood TK., Peti W., 2007, Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Protein YmgB: A Protein Critical for Biofilm Formation and Acid-resistance., J Mol Biol. 373(1):11-26
 Attila C., Ueda A., Wood TK., 2009, 5-Fluorouracil reduces biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 through global regulator AriR as an antivirulence compound., Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 82(3):525-33