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BluR DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: BluR
BluR is a MerR-like regulator that contains an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding region and a ligand-binding region in the C-terminal domain [2].
BluR functions as a repressor for genes involved in the modulation of biofilm formation and for acid resistance genes [1]. Its expression is strongly induced at low temperatures [1, 3, 4].
BluR is a paralogue of MlrA, and it represses the transcription of the ycgZ-ymgA-ariR-ymgC operon [1, 5]. This operon is transcribed divergently on the opposite strand, under the control of σ38 (RpoS) RNA polymerase [1, 6]. Its gene products are involved in the production of colanic acid, a component of the biofilm matrix, via the Rcs phosphorelay system [7, 8, 9, 10].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
BluR     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: MerR
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: bluR
  Genome position: 1213328-1214059
  Length: 732 bp / 243 aa
Operon name: bluR
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) ariR, ycgZ, ymgA, ymgC
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
unknown (1)
pH (1)
other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress) (1)
Regulated operon(s) ycgZ-ymgA-ariR-ymgC
First gene in the operon(s) ycgZ
Simple and complex regulons BluR
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  BluR repressor ycgZp Sigma38 nd nd ycgZ, ymgA, ariR, ymgC nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [1]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis


 [1] Tschowri N., Busse S., Hengge R., 2009, The BLUF-EAL protein YcgF acts as a direct anti-repressor in a blue-light response of Escherichia coli., Genes Dev. 23(4):522-34

 [2] Brown NL., Stoyanov JV., Kidd SP., Hobman JL., 2003, The MerR family of transcriptional regulators., FEMS Microbiol Rev. 27(2-3):145-63

 [3] White-Ziegler CA., Davis TR., 2009, Genome-wide identification of H-NS-controlled, temperature-regulated genes in Escherichia coli K-12., J Bacteriol. 191(3):1106-10

 [4] White-Ziegler CA., Um S., Perez NM., Berns AL., Malhowski AJ., Young S., 2008, Low temperature (23 degrees C) increases expression of biofilm-, cold-shock- and RpoS-dependent genes in Escherichia coli K-12., Microbiology. 154(Pt 1):148-66

 [5] Tschowri N., Lindenberg S., Hengge R., 2012, Molecular function and potential evolution of the biofilm-modulating blue light-signalling pathway of Escherichia coli., Mol Microbiol. 85(5):893-906

 [6] Gama-Castro S., Jimenez-Jacinto V., Peralta-Gil M., Santos-Zavaleta A., Penaloza-Spinola MI., Contreras-Moreira B., Segura-Salazar J., Muniz-Rascado L., Martinez-Flores I., Salgado H., Bonavides-Martinez C., Abreu-Goodger C., Rodriguez-Penagos C., Miranda-Rios J., Morett E., Merino E., Huerta AM., Trevino-Quintanilla L., Collado-Vides J., 2008, RegulonDB (version 6.0): gene regulation model of Escherichia coli K-12 beyond transcription, active (experimental) annotated promoters and Textpresso navigation., Nucleic Acids Res. 36(Database issue):D120-4

 [7] Domka J., Lee J., Bansal T., Wood TK., 2007, Temporal gene-expression in Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms., Environ Microbiol. 9(2):332-46

 [8] Majdalani N., Gottesman S., 2007, Genetic dissection of signaling through the Rcs phosphorelay., Methods Enzymol. 423:349-62

 [9] Lee J., Page R., Garcia-Contreras R., Palermino JM., Zhang XS., Doshi O., Wood TK., Peti W., 2007, Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Protein YmgB: A Protein Critical for Biofilm Formation and Acid-resistance., J Mol Biol. 373(1):11-26

 [10] Attila C., Ueda A., Wood TK., 2009, 5-Fluorouracil reduces biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 through global regulator AriR as an antivirulence compound., Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 82(3):525-33