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Dan DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Synonyms: Dan-L-tartrate
DNA-binding protein under anaerobic conditions, Dan [2], formerly TtdR or YgiP, is an LysR-type transcriptional regulator for L-tartrate fermentation. Dan belongs to the same family of growth phase-specific nucleoid proteins as Fis, Dps, HU, IHF, and H-NS [2]. More specifically, Dan belongs to the group II nucleoid proteins, which include Fis, Rob (CbpB), CbpA, and IciA and show irregular distribution within the nucleoid [2]. Dan may have a functional dichotomy, controlling both the structure and function of the nucleoid [2].
In the presence of L- and meso-tartrate, Dan stimulates expression of the divergently transcribed ttdABT operon, encoding L-tartrate dehydratase and the L-tartrate:succinate antiporter [1, 3].
The ttd pathway for L-tartate fermentation and the dcu pathway for general C4-dicarboxylate metabolism interact at the regulatory level [1].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
Dan-L-tartrate     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: LysR
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: ttdR
  Genome position: 3205324-3206256
  Length: 933 bp / 310 aa
Operon name: ttdR
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) ttdA, ttdB, ttdR, ttdT
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
fermentation (2)
Transcription related (1)
activator (1)
repressor (1)
Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters) (1)
Regulated operon(s) ttdABT, ttdR
First gene in the operon(s) ttdA, ttdR
Simple and complex regulons Dan
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence
LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdAp Sigma70 -163.0 -202.0 ttdA, ttdB, ttdT
3206258 3206264 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [1], [2]
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdAp Sigma70 -134.0 -173.0 ttdA, ttdB, ttdT
3206287 3206293 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [1], [2]
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdAp Sigma70 -92.0 -131.0 ttdA, ttdB, ttdT
3206329 3206335 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [1], [2]
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdAp Sigma70 -74.0 -113.0 ttdA, ttdB, ttdT
3206347 3206353 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [1], [2]
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdAp Sigma70 -59.0 -98.0 ttdA, ttdB, ttdT
3206362 3206368 [BPP], [GEA], [HIBSCS] [1], [2]
  Dan-L-tartrate activator ttdRp nd nd nd ttdR nd nd [BPP] [1]

Alignment and PSSM for Dan TFBSs    

Position weight matrix (PWM).   
A	1	0	0	2	5	0	0
C	0	0	0	1	0	0	0
G	4	0	1	1	0	0	0
T	0	5	4	1	0	5	5

PWM logo   


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
TF-target gene evolutionary conservation
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [HIBSCS] Human inference based on similarity to consensus sequences


 [1] Kim OB., Reimann J., Lukas H., Schumacher U., Grimpo J., Dunnwald P., Unden G., 2009, Regulation of tartrate metabolism by TtdR and relation to the DcuS-DcuR-regulated C4-dicarboxylate metabolism of Escherichia coli., Microbiology. 155(Pt 11):3632-40

 [2] Teramoto J., Yoshimura SH., Takeyasu K., Ishihama A., 2010, A novel nucleoid protein of Escherichia coli induced under anaerobiotic growth conditions., Nucleic Acids Res. 38(11):3605-18

 [3] Oshima T., Biville F., 2006, Functional identification of ygiP as a positive regulator of the ttdA-ttdB-ygjE operon., Microbiology. 152(Pt 7):2129-35