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GlrR DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Synonyms: GlrR-Pasp56, GlrR
GlrR is the response regulator of the two-component GlrKR signal transduction system, and it has extensive homology to the NtrC family of activators [1] GlrR contains a σ54 interaction domain which binds to a DNA region located more than 100bp upstream of glmY. Transcription of a glmY-lacZ fusion from the σ54 promoter is abolished in a GlrR null strain. Purified GlrR can be phosphorylated in vitro by the cognate histidine kinase GlrK as well as by the non-cognate histidine kinases UhpB, RstB, and BaeS [3]. GlrR: "glmY-regulating response regulator" [1]

Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
GlrR Non-Functional   Apo [BPP], [GEA], [IDA], [IEP] [1]
GlrR-Pasp56 Functional Covalent Holo [BPP], [GEA], [IDA], [IEP] [1]
Evolutionary Family: EBP
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: glrR
  Genome position: 2687469-2688803
  Length: 1335 bp / 444 aa
Operon name: glrR-glnB
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) glmY, rpoE, rseA, rseB, rseC, rseD
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
Transcription related (4)
sigma factors, anti-sigmafactors (4)
other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress) (4)
temperature extremes (2)
starvation (2)
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Regulated operon(s) glmY, rseD-rpoE-rseABC
First gene in the operon(s) glmY, rseD
Simple and complex regulons CRP,GlrR,NtrC,RcsB
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator glmYp1 Sigma54 -221.5 -221.5 glmY
2691553 2691570 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator glmYp1 Sigma54 -188.5 -188.5 glmY
2691520 2691537 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator glmYp1 Sigma54 -125.5 -125.5 glmY
2691457 2691474 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator rpoEp2b Sigma70, Sigma54 -90.5 -265.5 rseD, rpoE, rseA, rseB, rseC
2710420 2710440 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [2]
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator rpoEp2b Sigma70, Sigma54 -65.5 -240.5 rseD, rpoE, rseA, rseB, rseC
2710396 2710413 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [2]
  GlrR-Pasp56 activator rpoEp2b Sigma70, Sigma54 -26.5 -201.5 rseD, rpoE, rseA, rseB, rseC
2710357 2710374 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [2]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [IDA] Inferred from direct assay

 [IEP] Inferred from expression pattern

 [APIORCISFBSCS] A person inferred or reviewed a computer inference of sequence function based on similarity to a consensus sequence.

 [SM] Site mutation


 [1] Reichenbach B., Gopel Y., Gorke B., 2009, Dual control by perfectly overlapping sigma 54- and sigma 70- promoters adjusts small RNA GlmY expression to different environmental signals., Mol Microbiol 74(5):1054-70

 [2] Klein G., Stupak A., Biernacka D., Wojtkiewicz P., Lindner B., Raina S., 2016, Multiple Transcriptional Factors Regulate Transcription of the rpoE Gene in Escherichia coli under Different Growth Conditions and When the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Is Defective., J Biol Chem 291(44):22999-23019

 [3] Yamamoto K., Hirao K., Oshima T., Aiba H., Utsumi R., Ishihama A., 2005, Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem 280(2):1448-56