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MazE DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: MazE
Summary:
MazE is an antitoxin that counteracts the MazF toxin |CITS: [8226627][8650219]|. MazF exhibits ribonuclease activity toward single stranded RNA regions of sequence ACA, and the resulting degradation of cellular mRNA causes global translation inhibition |CITS: [14580342]|. MazF exhibits RNase activity toward tmRNA, and tmRNA is involved in release of MazF-mediated cell growth inhibition |CITS: [12972253]|.
The mazEF system causes a programmed cell death response to stresses including starvation |CITS: [8650219]| and antibiotics |CITS: [11222603]|. The antitoxin, MazE, is subject to degradation by the ClpAP protease complex and exhibits a short (30 minute) half life, whereas the toxin, MazF, is much more stable |CITS: [8650219]|. Overproduction of MazE has no effect in the absence of MazF |CITS: [8650219]|.
Published reports disagree about whether MazF causes cell lysis in the absence of MazE |CITS: [8650219]| or whether the toxin causes reversible inhibition of cell growth, inhibiting translation and replication without causing cell inviability |CITS: [12123459]|. The MazE-MazF system mediates the toxicity of guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (rapid relA induction), which is associated with amino acid deprivation |CITS: [8650219]|; cell death caused by the antibiotics rifampicin, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin |CITS: [11222603]|; and the thymineless death (TLD) response to thymine starvation |CITS: [12618443]|.
The structure of the MazE-MazF complex is presented at 1.7 A resolution |CITS: [12718874]|.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
MazE     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: MazE
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: mazE
  Genome position: 2911091-2911339
  Length: 249 bp / 82 aa
Operon name: relA-mazEFG
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
mazEFG
mazEp1
mazEFG
mazEp2
relA-mazEF
relAp1
relA-mazEF
relAp2


Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) mazE, mazF, mazG
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
starvation (3)
defense/survival (2)
other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress) (2)
cell killing (2)
drug resistance/sensitivity (2)
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Regulated operon(s) relA-mazEFG
First gene in the operon(s) mazE, mazE
Simple and complex regulons Fis,MazE,MazE-MazF
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[MazE-MazF,-](2)


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  MazE repressor mazEp1 nd -21.0 -50.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
aaatttgctcGTATCTACAATGTAGATTGATATATACtgtatctaca
2911376 2911402 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  MazE repressor mazEp1 nd -7.0 -36.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
tacaatgtagATTGATATATACTGTATCTACATATgatagcggtt
2911363 2911387 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2]
  MazE repressor mazEp2 nd -34.0 -50.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
aaatttgctcGTATCTACAATGTAGATTGATATATACtgtatctaca
2911376 2911402 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  MazE repressor mazEp2 nd -20.0 -36.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
tacaatgtagATTGATATATACTGTATCTACATATgatagcggtt
2911363 2911387 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2]


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


Evidence    

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [SM] Site mutation



Reference(s)    

 [1] Marianovsky I., Aizenman E., Engelberg-Kulka H., Glaser G., 2001, The regulation of the Escherichia coli mazEF promoter involves an unusual alternating palindrome., J Biol Chem. 276(8):5975-84

 [2] Masuda Y., Miyakawa K., Nishimura Y., Ohtsubo E., 1993, chpA and chpB, Escherichia coli chromosomal homologs of the pem locus responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100., J Bacteriol. 175(21):6850-6



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