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MazE-MazF DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: MazE-MazF
Summary:
MazF is a toxin that is counteracted by the MazE antitoxin Aizenman E,1996. The mazEF system causes a programmed cell death response to stresses including starvation Aizenman E,1996 and antibiotics Sat B,2001. The antitoxin, MazE, is subject to degradation by ClpP-ClpA protease complex and exhibits a short (30 minute) half life, whereas the toxin, MazF, is much more stable Aizenman E,1996.
The structure of the MazE-MazF complex is presented at 1.7 A resolution Kamada K,2003. The complex is hexameric and is comprised of a MazE homodimer sandwiched between MazF homodimers Kamada K,2003.
It has been shown that the C terminus of the MazE TF plays an important role for MazE by increasing its binding affinity for the palindromic single-site operator Zorzini V,2015
Review: de la Cueva-Mendez G.,2003. Yamaguchi Y,2011.


Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
MazE-MazF     nd nd
Connectivity class: Local Regulator


No gene found!

Regulon       
Regulated gene(s) mazE, mazF, mazG
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
starvation (3)
defense/survival (2)
other (mechanical, nutritional, oxidative stress) (2)
cell killing (2)
drug resistance/sensitivity (2)
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Regulated operon(s) relA-mazEFG
First gene in the operon(s) mazE, mazE
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
[MazE-MazF,-](2)


Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  MazE-MazF repressor mazEp1 nd -21.0 -50.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
aaatttgctcGTATCTACAATGTAGATTGATATATACtgtatctaca
2911376 2911402 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  MazE-MazF repressor mazEp1 nd -7.0 -36.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
ctacaatgtaGATTGATATATACTGTATCTACATATGatagcggttt
2911362 2911388 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2]
  MazE-MazF repressor mazEp2 nd -34.0 -50.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
aaatttgctcGTATCTACAATGTAGATTGATATATACtgtatctaca
2911376 2911402 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1]
  MazE-MazF repressor mazEp2 nd -20.0 -36.0 mazE, mazF, mazG
ctacaatgtaGATTGATATATACTGTATCTACATATGatagcggttt
2911362 2911388 [BCE], [GEA], [SM] [1], [2]


Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


Evidence    

 [BCE] Binding of cellular extracts

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [SM] Site mutation



Reference(s)    

 [1] Marianovsky I., Aizenman E., Engelberg-Kulka H., Glaser G., 2001, The regulation of the Escherichia coli mazEF promoter involves an unusual alternating palindrome., J Biol Chem. 276(8):5975-84

 [2] Masuda Y., Miyakawa K., Nishimura Y., Ohtsubo E., 1993, chpA and chpB, Escherichia coli chromosomal homologs of the pem locus responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100., J Bacteriol. 175(21):6850-6



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