The YafQ-DinJ toxin-antitoxin system was identified by its similarity to the RelE-RelB toxin-antitoxin system . Expression of YafQ alone reduces protein synthesis and inhibits growth, and coexpression of DinJ alleviates that phenotype, acting as the antitoxin [2, 5, 6].
YafQ and DinJ form a stable complex  which can bind to the dinJ-yafQ palindrome upstream of the translation start site .
A strain from which all five toxin-antitoxin systems have been deleted shows no deficiency in its stress response or competitiveness under nutrient-limited conditions . However, biofilm formation is affected via expression of the TabA protein .
A dinJ-yafQ deletion mutant is impaired in biofilm formation .Read more >
Deletion of any single toxin-antitoxin system encoding an RNase has no effect on persister formation, but deleting ten such systems dramatically reduces persister formation. Persister formation depends on degradation of the antitoxins by the Lon protease .
A crystal structure of the DinJ-YafQ complex has been solved at 1.8 Å resolution, showing a YafQ-(DinJ)2-YafQ conformation . Similar results were obtained for the proteins from E. coli BL21(DE3) .
Reviews: [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]
|Connectivity class:||Local Regulator|
|Length:||261 bp / 86 aa|
|TU(s) encoding the TF:||
|Length:||279 bp / 92 aa|
|TU(s) encoding the TF:||
|Regulated gene(s)||cspE, dinJ, yafQ|
|Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s)||
MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
cell killing (2)
transcriptional level (1)
|Regulated operon(s)||cspE, dinJ-yafQ|
|First gene in the operon(s)||cspE, dinJ|
|Simple and complex regulons|
|Simple and complex regulatory phrases||
Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)
|Functional conformation||Function||Promoter||Sigma factor||Central Rel-Pos||Distance to first Gene||Genes||Sequence||LeftPos||RightPos||Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak)||References|
|657096||657111||[BPP], [GEA], [SM]|||
|246519||246534||[BPP], [HIBSCS], [SM]||, |
|Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements|
 Prysak MH., Mozdzierz CJ., Cook AM., Zhu L., Zhang Y., Inouye M., Woychik NA., 2009, Bacterial toxin YafQ is an endoribonuclease that associates with the ribosome and blocks translation elongation through sequence-specific and frame-dependent mRNA cleavage., Mol Microbiol. 71(5):1071-87
 Ruangprasert A., Maehigashi T., Miles SJ., Giridharan N., Liu JX., Dunham CM., 2014, Mechanisms of toxin inhibition and transcriptional repression by Escherichia coli DinJ-YafQ., J Biol Chem. 289(30):20559-69
 Szekeres S., Dauti M., Wilde C., Mazel D., Rowe-Magnus DA., 2007, Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin loci can diminish large-scale genome reductions in the absence of selection., Mol Microbiol. 63(6):1588-605
 Kolodkin-Gal I., Verdiger R., Shlosberg-Fedida A., Engelberg-Kulka H., 2009, A differential effect of E. coli toxin-antitoxin systems on cell death in liquid media and biofilm formation., PLoS One. 4(8):e6785