RegulonDB RegulonDB 9.4:Regulon Page

HypT DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator

Synonyms: HypT-Met-oxidized
HypT belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator family, which protects cells from HOCl damage [1, 3]. It regulates several genes upon hypochlorite stress, which increases cellular viability by reducing the intracellular iron levels [1]. This assumes a primary role for HypT in downregulating iron acquisition genes in order to prevent further synthesis of iron uptake proteins [1].
HypT is specifically activated by HOCl by methionine oxidation, protecting the cells from the detrimental effects of HOCl) [1]. HypT belongs to the large family of LTTRs and is conserved in α-, β-, and γ-proteobacteria and eukaryotes (Xenopus tropicalis), which suggests conservation of the HOCl response in evolution and its maintenance throughout the kingdoms [1].
Based on microarray analysis, HypT upregulates genes involved in cysteine and methionine biosynthesis and sulfur metabolism upon hypochlorite stress.
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
HypT-Met-oxidized     nd nd
Evolutionary Family: LysR
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: hypT
  Genome position: 4557378-4558289
  Length: 912 bp / 303 aa
Operon name: hypT
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) cydA, cydB, cysH, fecA, fecB, fecC, fecD, fecE, metB, metI, metL, metN, metQ
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
membrane (5)
Fe aquisition (4)
ABC superfamily, membrane component (3)
electron acceptors (2)
ABC superfamily, periplasmic binding component (2)
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Regulated operon(s) cydAB, cysJIH, fecABCDE, metBL, metNIQ
First gene in the operon(s) cydA, cysH, fecA, metB, metN
Simple and complex regulons ArcA,FNR,H-NS,HypT
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  HypT-Met-oxidized activator cydAp1 Sigma70 nd nd cydA, cydB nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [1]
  HypT-Met-oxidized activator cysHp nd nd nd cysH nd nd [GEA] [1], [2]
  HypT-Met-oxidized repressor fecAp Sigma19 nd nd fecA, fecB, fecC, fecD, fecE nd nd [GEA] [1], [2]
  HypT-Met-oxidized activator metBp Sigma70 nd nd metB, metL nd nd [GEA] [1], [2]
  HypT-Met-oxidized activator metNp Sigma70 nd nd metN, metI, metQ nd nd [BPP], [GEA] [1], [2]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis


 [1] Gebendorfer KM., Drazic A., Le Y., Gundlach J., Bepperling A., Kastenmuller A., Ganzinger KA., Braun N., Franzmann TM., Winter J., 2012, Identification of a Hypochlorite-specific Transcription Factor from Escherichia coli., J Biol Chem. 287(9):6892-903

 [2] Drazic A., Miura H., Peschek J., Le Y., Bach NC., Kriehuber T., Winter J., 2013, Methionine oxidation activates a transcription factor in response to oxidative stress., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(23):9493-8

 [3] Drazic A., Tsoutsoulopoulos A., Peschek J., Gundlach J., Krause M., Bach NC., Gebendorfer KM., Winter J., 2013, Role of cysteines in the stability and DNA-binding activity of the hypochlorite-specific transcription factor HypT., PLoS One. 8(10):e75683

 [4] Drazic A., Gebendorfer KM., Mak S., Steiner A., Krause M., Bepperling A., Winter J., 2014, Tetramers are the activation-competent species of the HOCl-specific transcription factor HypT., J Biol Chem. 289(2):977-86