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HigA DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: HigA
HigA is the antitoxin of the translation-dependent mRNA interferase toxin HigB [2].
Ectopic expression of higB causes inhibition of cell growth which is alleviated by co-expression of higA [2].
The promoter upstream of higB appears to be autorepressed by HigA; Lon protease is required for activation of transcription. Transcription is induced by chloramphenicol treatment as well as amino acid starvation induced by serine hydroxamate [2].
Two HigA monomers dimerize at their N-terminal domain, and α1 is essential for this dimerization which generates the arrangement of the HigB-(HigA)2-HigB complex. The HigA C-terminal domain with a helix-turn-helix (HTH) fold is essential for DNA binding and for expression of the higBA operon [1]
HigA has the highest affinity at the -27 site overlapping with the promoter -35 region [1]
Review: [3] Read more >

Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
HigA     nd nd
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: higA
  Genome position: 3233728-3234144
  Length: 417 bp / 138 aa
Operon name: higBA
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) higA, higB
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
transcriptional level (1)
translation attenuation and efficiency (1)
Regulated operon(s) higBA
First gene in the operon(s) higB
Simple and complex regulons HigA,HigB-HigA
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements       

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  HigA repressor higBp Sigma70 -27.0 -52.0 higB, higA
3234494 3234520 [BPP], [IHBCE] [1]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [IHBCE] Inferred by a human based on computational evidence


 [1] Yang J., Zhou K., Liu P., Dong Y., Gao Z., Zhang J., Liu Q., 2016, Structural insight into the E.¿¿coli HigBA complex., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 478(4):1521-7

 [2] Christensen-Dalsgaard M., Jorgensen MG., Gerdes K., 2010, Three new RelE-homologous mRNA interferases of Escherichia coli differentially induced by environmental stresses., Mol Microbiol. 75(2):333-48

 [3] Yamaguchi Y., Park JH., Inouye M., 2011, Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea., Annu Rev Genet. 45:61-79