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PdeL DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Synonyms: PdeL
PdeL is a c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase consisting of an N-terminal LuxR-like DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal EAL domain that is required for phosphodiesterase activity [2]. The isolated EAL domain of the enzyme is in a fast monomer-dimer equilibrium. Only the dimeric form of PdeL has phosphodiesterase activity, and substrate binding increases dimerization affinity [3]. Crystal structures of the EAL domain alone and in various complexes have been solved, showing structural coupling between the dimer interface and the catalytic site [3]. A screen for suppressors of the motility defect of a |FRAME: EG12252 ΔpdeH| mutant identified activating mutations in E. coli's alternative c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including PdeL. This supports a model whereby the signaling specificity of PDEs is the result of environmental signals required for their activation. Suppressor mutations in pdeL consisted of point mutations that are located within its catalytic EAL domain and resulted in higher levels of PdeL protein, increased enzymatic activity, reduced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP, and increased swimming motility [1].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
PdeL Functional   [APPHINH], [IEP], [IHBCE] [1]
Evolutionary Family: LuxR/UhpA
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: pdeL
  Genome position: 332371-333459
  Length: 1089 bp / 362 aa
Operon name: pdeL
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) pdeL
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s)
regulation (1)
Regulated operon(s) pdeL
First gene in the operon(s) pdeL
Simple and complex regulons PdeL
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  PdeL activator pdeLp2 Sigma70 -189.0 -687.0 pdeL
331672 331696 [BPP], [GEA], [IHBCE] [1]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [APPHINH] Assay of protein purified to homogeneity from its native host

 [IEP] Inferred from expression pattern

 [IHBCE] Inferred by a human based on computational evidence

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis


 [1] Reinders A., Hee CS., Ozaki S., Mazur A., Boehm A., Schirmer T., Jenal U., 2015, Expression and Genetic Activation of Cyclic Di-GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterases in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 198(3):448-62

 [2] Schmidt AJ, Ryjenkov DA, Gomelsky M, 2005, The ubiquitous protein domain EAL is a cyclic diguanylate-specific phosphodiesterase: enzymatically active and inactive EAL domains., J Bacteriol, 2005 Jul

 [3] Sundriyal A, Massa C, Samoray D, Zehender F, Sharpe T, Jenal U, Schirmer T, 2014, Inherent regulation of EAL domain-catalyzed hydrolysis of second messenger cyclic di-GMP., J Biol Chem, 2014 Mar 7

 [4] Hengge R, Galperin MY, Ghigo JM, Gomelsky M, Green J, Hughes KT, Jenal U, Landini P, 2016, Systematic Nomenclature for GGDEF and EAL Domain-Containing Cyclic Di-GMP Turnover Proteins of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol, 2016 Jan 1

 [5] Hengge R, 2016, Trigger phosphodiesterases as a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2016 Nov 5