RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.7:Regulon Page

DinJ-YafQ DNA-binding transcriptional repressor

Synonyms: DinJ-YafQ
The YafQ-DinJ toxin-antitoxin system was identified by its similarity to the RelE-RelB toxin-antitoxin system [5]. Expression of YafQ alone reduces protein synthesis and inhibits growth, and coexpression of DinJ alleviates that phenotype, acting as the antitoxin [1, 2, 6]. YafQ and DinJ form a stable complex [1] which can bind to the dinJ-yafQ palindrome upstream of the translation start site [2]. A strain from which all five toxin-antitoxin systems have been deleted shows no deficiency in its stress response or competitiveness under nutrient-limited conditions [7]. However, biofilm formation is affected via expression of the TabA protein [8].
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Transcription factor      
TF conformation(s):
Name Conformation Type TF-Effector Interaction Type Apo/Holo Conformation Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
DinJ-YafQ Functional   [IDA], [IGI] [1], [2]
Connectivity class: Local Regulator
Gene name: dinJ
  Genome position: 246242-246502
  Length: 261 bp / 86 aa
Operon name: dinJ-yafQ
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter
Gene name: yafQ
  Genome position: 245961-246239
  Length: 279 bp / 92 aa
Operon name: dinJ-yafQ
TU(s) encoding the TF:
Transcription unit        Promoter

Regulated gene(s) cspE, dinJ, yafQ
Multifun term(s) of regulated gene(s) MultiFun Term (List of genes associated to the multifun term)
cell killing (2)
transcriptional level (1)
Regulated operon(s) cspE, dinJ-yafQ
First gene in the operon(s) cspE, dinJ
Simple and complex regulons DinJ-YafQ
Simple and complex regulatory phrases Regulatory phrase (List of promoters regulated by the phrase)

Transcription factor regulation    

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) arrangements

  Functional conformation Function Promoter Sigma factor Central Rel-Pos Distance to first Gene Genes Sequence LeftPos RightPos Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) References
  DinJ-YafQ repressor cspEp1 Sigma70 -43.5 -188.5 cspE
657096 657112 [BPP], [GEA], [SM] [3]
  DinJ-YafQ repressor dinJp Sigma70 89.5 -24.5 dinJ, yafQ
246519 246535 [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [SM] [2], [4]

Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements    
     Note: Evolutionary conservation of regulatory interactions and promoters is limited to gammaproteobacteria.
Promoter-target gene evolutionary conservation


 [IDA] Inferred from direct assay

 [IGI] Inferred from genetic interaction

 [BPP] Binding of purified proteins

 [GEA] Gene expression analysis

 [SM] Site mutation

 [APIORCISFBSCS] A person inferred or reviewed a computer inference of sequence function based on similarity to a consensus sequence.


 [1] Motiejunaite R., Armalyte J., Markuckas A., Suziedeliene E., 2007, Escherichia coli dinJ-yafQ genes act as a toxin-antitoxin module., FEMS Microbiol Lett 268(1):112-9

 [2] Prysak MH., Mozdzierz CJ., Cook AM., Zhu L., Zhang Y., Inouye M., Woychik NA., 2009, Bacterial toxin YafQ is an endoribonuclease that associates with the ribosome and blocks translation elongation through sequence-specific and frame-dependent mRNA cleavage., Mol Microbiol 71(5):1071-87

 [3] Hu Y., Benedik MJ., Wood TK., 2012, Antitoxin DinJ influences the general stress response through transcript stabilizer CspE., Environ Microbiol 14(3):669-79

 [4] Ruangprasert A., Maehigashi T., Miles SJ., Giridharan N., Liu JX., Dunham CM., 2014, Mechanisms of toxin inhibition and transcriptional repression by Escherichia coli DinJ-YafQ., J Biol Chem 289(30):20559-69

 [5] Gotfredsen M, Gerdes K, 1998, The Escherichia coli relBE genes belong to a new toxin-antitoxin gene family., Mol Microbiol, 1998 Aug

 [6] Szekeres S, Dauti M, Wilde C, Mazel D, Rowe-Magnus DA, 2007, Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin loci can diminish large-scale genome reductions in the absence of selection., Mol Microbiol, 2007 Mar

 [7] Tsilibaris V., Maenhaut-Michel G., Mine N., Van Melderen L., 2007, What is the benefit to Escherichia coli of having multiple toxin-antitoxin systems in its genome?, J Bacteriol 189(17):6101-8

 [8] Kim Y, Wang X, Ma Q, Zhang XS, Wood TK, 2009, Toxin-antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli influence biofilm formation through YjgK (TabA) and fimbriae., J Bacteriol, 2009 Feb

 [9] Kolodkin-Gal I, Verdiger R, Shlosberg-Fedida A, Engelberg-Kulka H, 2009, A differential effect of E. coli toxin-antitoxin systems on cell death in liquid media and biofilm formation., PLoS One, 2009 Aug 26

 [10] Liang Y., Gao Z., Wang F., Zhang Y., Dong Y., Liu Q., 2014, Structural and functional characterization of Escherichia coli toxin-antitoxin complex DinJ-YafQ., J Biol Chem 289(30):21191-202

 [11] Gerdes K, 2000, Toxin-antitoxin modules may regulate synthesis of macromolecules during nutritional stress., J Bacteriol, 2000 Feb

 [12] Buts L, Lah J, Dao-Thi MH, Wyns L, Loris R, 2005, Toxin-antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers., Trends Biochem Sci, 2005 Dec

 [13] Gerdes K, Christensen SK, Løbner-Olesen A, 2005, Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci., Nat Rev Microbiol, 2005 May

 [14] Condon C, 2006, Shutdown decay of mRNA., Mol Microbiol, 2006 Aug

 [15] Inouye M, 2006, The discovery of mRNA interferases: implication in bacterial physiology and application to biotechnology., J Cell Physiol, 2006 Dec

 [16] Magnuson RD, 2007, Hypothetical functions of toxin-antitoxin systems., J Bacteriol, 2007 Sep

 [17] Maisonneuve E., Shakespeare LJ., Jorgensen MG., Gerdes K., 2011, Bacterial persistence by RNA endonucleases., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(32):13206-11