RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.9: Operon Form

fepA-entD operon and associated TUs in Escherichia coli K-12 genome

Name: fepA-entD
This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation.

Transcription unit          
Name: fepA-entD
Synonym(s): OP00224, fepA
Gene(s): entD, fepA   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): Expression of fepA, along with that of other genes also regulated by Fur, is reduced under Zn excess Xu Z,2019.
fepA-entD expression could be affected by OmpR, because the fepA gene was affected in an EnvZ mutant, part of the sensor pair of EnvZ/OmpR Gerken H,2020.
Reference(s): [1] Hunt MD., et al., 1994
Name: fepAp
+1: 612667
Sigma Factor: Sigma70 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 173
Sequence: ccatgtttactgtgcaatttttcattgattgcagaaatatattgataatattattgataaCtatttgcatttgcaatagcg
                         -35                     -10        +1                   
Evidence: [ICWHO]
Reference(s): [2] Escolar L., et al., 1998
[3] Huerta AM., et al., 2003
[4] Pettis GS., et al., 1988
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal CRP-cAMP activator fepAp 612699 612720 -42.5 aaccccatgtTTACTGTGCAATTTTTCATTGATtgcagaaata nd [AIBSCS], [GEA] [5]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal Fur-Fe2+ repressor fepAp 612652 612666 9.0 ttattgataaCTATTTGCATTTGCAAtagcgtaatg nd [AIBSCS], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [6], [7], [8], [9]
proximal Fur-Fe2+ repressor fepAp 612659 612673 2.0 gataatattaTTGATAACTATTTGCAtttgcaatag nd [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [5], [6], [7], [8]
proximal Fur-Fe2+ repressor fepAp 612665 612679 -5.0 tatattgataATATTATTGATAACTAtttgcatttg nd [AIBSCS], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [6], [7], [8]
proximal Fur-Fe2+ repressor fepAp 612671 612685 -11.0 cagaaatataTTGATAATATTATTGAtaactatttg nd [AIBSCS], [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [6], [7], [8]
proximal Fur-Fe2+ repressor fepAp 612678 612692 -18.0 ttgattgcagAAATATATTGATAATAttattgataa nd [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [GEA] [6], [7], [8]

RNA cis-regulatory element    
Regulation, transcriptional elongation  
Attenuator type: Translational
Strand: reverse
Evidence: [ICA] Inferred by computational analysis
Reference(s): [12] Merino E, et al., 2005
  Structure type Energy LeftPos RightPos Sequence (RNA-strand)
  terminator -6.3 612514 612538 atgacgaccaTGCCCGACAGTTGCAATTCGTGGCaaaaatgcag
Notes: "The provided "Sequence" is that of the RNA strand, i.e. U's are shown instead of T's and regulators on the reverse strand will appear as the reverse complement of the sequence delimited by LeftPos-RigtPos"


 [1] Hunt MD., Pettis GS., McIntosh MA., 1994, Promoter and operator determinants for fur-mediated iron regulation in the bidirectional fepA-fes control region of the Escherichia coli enterobactin gene system., J Bacteriol 176(13):3944-55

 [2] Escolar L., Perez-Martin J., de Lorenzo V., 1998, Coordinated repression in vitro of the divergent fepA-fes promoters of Escherichia coli by the iron uptake regulation (Fur) protein., J Bacteriol 180(9):2579-82

 [3] Huerta AM., Collado-Vides J., 2003, Sigma70 promoters in Escherichia coli: specific transcription in dense regions of overlapping promoter-like signals., J Mol Biol 333(2):261-78

 [4] Pettis GS., Brickman TJ., McIntosh MA., 1988, Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli fepA-fes enterobactin region. Identification of a unique iron-regulated bidirectional promoter., J Biol Chem 263(35):18857-63

 [5] Zhang Z., Gosset G., Barabote R., Gonzalez CS., Cuevas WA., Saier MH., 2005, Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 187(3):980-90

 [6] Chen Z., Lewis KA., Shultzaberger RK., Lyakhov IG., Zheng M., Doan B., Storz G., Schneider TD., 2007, Discovery of Fur binding site clusters in Escherichia coli by information theory models., Nucleic Acids Res 35(20):6762-77

 [7] Gerken H., Vuong P., Soparkar K., Misra R., 2020, Roles of the EnvZ/OmpR Two-Component System and Porins in Iron Acquisition in Escherichia coli., mBio 11(3)

 [8] Zhang F., Li B., Dong H., Chen M., Yao S., Li J., Zhang H., Liu X., Wang H., Song N., Zhang K., Du N., Xu S., Gu L., 2020, YdiV regulates Escherichia coli ferric uptake by manipulating the DNA-binding ability of Fur in a SlyD-dependent manner., Nucleic Acids Res

 [9] Vassinova N., Kozyrev D., 2000, A method for direct cloning of fur-regulated genes: identification of seven new fur-regulated loci in Escherichia coli., Microbiology 146 Pt 12:3171-3182

 [10] Guillier M., Gottesman S., 2008, The 5' end of two redundant sRNAs is involved in the regulation of multiple targets, including their own regulator., Nucleic Acids Res 36(21):6781-94

 [11] Jagodnik J., Chiaruttini C., Guillier M., 2017, Stem-Loop Structures within mRNA Coding Sequences Activate Translation Initiation and Mediate Control by Small Regulatory RNAs., Mol Cell 68(1):158-170.e3

 [12] Merino E, Yanofsky C., 2005, Transcription attenuation: a highly conserved regulatory strategy used by bacteria., Trends Genet. 2005 May;21(5):260-4.