RegulonDB RegulonDB 10.8: Operon Form
   

proP operon and associated TUs in Escherichia coli K-12 genome




Operon      
Name: proP
This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation.


Transcription unit          
Name: proP
Synonym(s): OP00211
Gene(s): proP   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The mRNA produced by the proP gene has been observed mainly in the poles of the cell 31540875.
Reference(s): [1] Xu J., et al., 1995
Promoter
Name: proPp1
+1: 4330320
Sigma Factor: Sigma70 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 182
Sequence: tcctaaacgaaatccatgtgtgaagttgatcacaaatttaaacactggtagggtaaaaagGtcattaactgcccaattcag
                             -35                      -10   +1                   
Note(s): The proPp1 promoter contributes significantly to the overall expression in minimal medium and is central to the osmotic response.
Evidence: [CV(RS-EPT-CBR/TA)]
[CV(TA/TIM)]
[HIPP]
[RS-EPT-CBR]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [2] Mellies J., et al., 1995
[3] Salgado H, et al., 2012
[1] Xu J., et al., 1995
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal CRP-cAMP1 repressor proPp1 4330275 4330296 -34.5 aacgaaatccATGTGTGAAGTTGATCACAAATttaaacactg nd [BCE], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/ROMA)], [CV(CHIP-SV/SM)], [CV(GEA/ROMA)], [CV(GEA/ROMA/SM)], [GEA], [SM] [1], [4]
Note(s): 1CRP has a strong inhibitory effect on the proPp1 promoter because it binds to the almost-perfect consensus CRP-binding site located within the 35 box.1CRP has a strong inhibitory effect on the proPp1 promoter because it binds to the almost-perfect consensus CRP-binding site located within the 35 box.


Transcription unit          
Name: proP
Gene(s): proP   Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS
Note(s): The mRNA produced by the proP gene has been observed mainly in the poles of the cell 31540875.
Reference(s): [1] Xu J., et al., 1995
Promoter
Name: proPp2
+1: 4330407
Sigma Factor: Sigma38 Sigmulon
Distance from start of the gene: 95
Sequence: actggtttgattgtacattccttaaccggagggtgtaagcaaacccgctacgcttgttacAgagattgcatcctgcaattc
                          -35               -10             +1                   
Note(s): proPp2 is central to the stationary-phase response. The sequence around the -10 region of the proPp2 promoter has similarity to those of σ70 promoters, but there is no resemblance in the -35 region.
Fis and RpoS are two regulators that control different sets of genes in distinct stages of cellular growth and, in general, function antagonistically. However, proP gene expression at the proPp2 promoter is the unique case, with both regulators collaborating to achieve promoter activation. It is also the only case in which Fis functions as a class II transcription activator with its site centered at -41 (the proP regulatory region presents two sites for Fis, at -41 and -81 with respect to the +1 of transcriptional initiation). The ability of EσS to recognize nonoptimally placed and degenerated -35 elements enables EσS and Fis to control proP expression at proPp217302803.
Evidence: [HIPP]
[TIM]
Reference(s): [5] Eguchi Y., et al., 2004
[2] Mellies J., et al., 1995
[1] Xu J., et al., 1995
TF binding sites (TFBSs)
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
remote CRP-cAMP activator proPp2 4330274 4330295 -122.5 aaacgaaatcCATGTGTGAAGTTGATCACAAAtttaaacact nd [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [CV(CHIP-SV/GEA/ROMA)], [CV(GEA/ROMA)], [GEA] [6]
Type Transcription factor Function Promoter Binding Sites Growth Conditions Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak) Reference(s)
LeftPos RightPos Central Rel-Pos Sequence
proximal Fis1 activator proPp2 4330319 4330333 -81.0 agggtaaaaaGGTCATTAACTGCCCaattcaggcg nd [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [CV(CHIP-SV/SM)], [SM] [1]
proximal Fis2 activator proPp2 4330359 4330373 -41.0 tggtttgattGTACATTCCTTAACCggagggtgta nd [APIORCISFBSCS], [BPP], [CV(CHIP-SV/SM)], [SM] [1]
Note(s): 1In addition to Fis and σ38, sequences located over 108 bp upstream of the proP2 transcription initiation site are required for efficient expression.
2This is the most strongly activated promoter by Fis that has been described. In addition to Fis and σ38, sequences located over 108 bp upstream from the proP2 transcription initiation site are required for efficient expression.2In addition to Fis and σ38, sequences located over 108 bp upstream of the proP2 transcription initiation site are required for efficient expression.
3This is the most strongly activated promoter by Fis that has been described. In addition to Fis and σ38, sequences located over 108 bp upstream from the proP2 transcription initiation site are required for efficient expression.




Reference(s)    

 [1] Xu J., Johnson RC., 1995, Fis activates the RpoS-dependent stationary-phase expression of proP in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 177(18):5222-31

 [2] Mellies J., Wise A., Villarejo M., 1995, Two different Escherichia coli proP promoters respond to osmotic and growth phase signals., J Bacteriol 177(1):144-51

 [3] Salgado H, Peralta-Gil M, Gama-Castro S, Santos-Zavaleta A, Muñiz-Rascado L, García-Sotelo JS, Weiss V, Solano-Lira H, Martínez-Flores I, Medina-Rivera A, Salgado-Osorio G, Alquicira-Hernández S, Alquicira-Hernández K, López-Fuentes A, Porrón-Sotelo L, Huerta AM, Bonavides-Martínez C, Balderas-Martínez YI, Pannier L, Olvera M, Labastida A, Jiménez-Jacinto V, Vega-Alvarado L, Del Moral-Chávez V, Hernández-Alvarez A, Morett E, Collado-Vides J., 2012, RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more., Nucleic Acids Res.

 [4] Xu J., Johnson RC., 1997, Cyclic AMP receptor protein functions as a repressor of the osmotically inducible promoter proP P1 in Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 179(7):2410-7

 [5] Eguchi Y., Okada T., Minagawa S., Oshima T., Mori H., Yamamoto K., Ishihama A., Utsumi R., 2004, Signal transduction cascade between EvgA/EvgS and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems of Escherichia coli., J Bacteriol 186(10):3006-14

 [6] McLeod SM., Xu J., Johnson RC., 2000, Coactivation of the RpoS-dependent proP P2 promoter by fis and cyclic AMP receptor protein., J Bacteriol 182(15):4180-7


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