|Gene(s):||gnd Genome Browser M3D Gene expression COLOMBOS|
|Note(s):||Under nitrogen-rich growth conditions, the expression of the gnd gene was increased in mutants for two genes that encode two terminal oxidases, cyoA and cydB, and in mutants for two transcriptional regulators, Fnr and Fur. However, it is unknown if the effects of the transcriptional regulators act directly on gene expressionKumar R,2011
The expression of the gene gnd is increased under acidic growth conditions in microaerobiosis Marzan LW,2013
A potential RNA G-quadruplex structure, formed by guanine-rich sequences located in the coding sequence region of the gene, was identified for gnd . This structure could regulate the expression of the gene, as observed for hemL gene expression Shao X, Zhang W, Umar MI, Wong HY, Seng Z, Xie Y, Zhang Y, Yang L, Kwok CK, Deng X,2020.
The expression of the gene gnd is enhanced under oxygen limitation Kawaguchi H, Miyagawa H, Nakamura-Tsuruta S, Takaya N, Ogino C, Kondo A,2019.
|Evidence:||[BTEI] Boundaries of transcription experimentally identified|
|Reference(s):|| Nasoff MS., et al., 1984|
|Sigma Factor:||Sigma70 Sigmulon|
|Distance from start of the gene:||56|
-35 -10 +1
 Baker HV., et al., 1984
 Huerta AM., et al., 2003
 Nasoff MS., et al., 1984
 Salgado H, et al., 2012
 Salgado H, Peralta-Gil M, Gama-Castro S, Santos-Zavaleta A, Muñiz-Rascado L, García-Sotelo JS, Weiss V, Solano-Lira H, Martínez-Flores I, Medina-Rivera A, Salgado-Osorio G, Alquicira-Hernández S, Alquicira-Hernández K, López-Fuentes A, Porrón-Sotelo L, Huerta AM, Bonavides-Martínez C, Balderas-Martínez YI, Pannier L, Olvera M, Labastida A, Jiménez-Jacinto V, Vega-Alvarado L, Del Moral-Chávez V, Hernández-Alvarez A, Morett E, Collado-Vides J., 2012, RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more., Nucleic Acids Res.
 Hommais F., Krin E., Coppee JY., Lacroix C., Yeramian E., Danchin A., Bertin P., 2004, GadE (YhiE): a novel activator involved in the response to acid environment in Escherichia coli., Microbiology 150(Pt 1):61-72
 Kumar R., Shimizu K., 2011, Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures., Microb Cell Fact 10:3